Desiccation, pollution, bacterial contamination, and disease, resulting from urbanization, pose serious threats to the axolotl.
The desiccation and pollution of the canal system and lakes in Xochimilco and Chalco, as a result of urbanization, is threatening the survival of this species. Increased tourist activity is poorly regulated and adds further pollution. The axolotls are also being affected by disease, probably spread by invasive species, and as a result of poor water quality.
Although the water regime has changed in the last 10 years, and it is reported that pollution levels are decreasing, factors such as very high levels of bacterial contamination could still pose a serious threat.