With such a small population of Javan rhinoceros left, the species’ survival is threatened by low genetic diversity, the likelihood of inbreeding, and the potential of natural disasters.
There are still major gaps in our knowledge about Javan rhinoceroses because they are extremely difficult to study and there’s a remote possibility that remnant, undiscovered populations exist.
The Javan rhinoceros is generally solitary, except for mating pairs and mothers with their young.
There is little sexual dimorphism in the Javan rhinoceros, however females have shorter, less prominent horns or may lack a horn, entirely.
The Javan rhinoceros’ gestation and inter-birth intervals are unknown, but are presumed to be similar to other rhinos, with a single calf being born after a gestation of 15-16 months every 2-3 years.
60% of Eastern Asian doctors stock rhino horn, with Asian horns, like that of the Javan rhinoceros, preferred over those of African species.
The Javan rhinoceros has a unique, prehensile, pointed, upper lip that functions as an aid for feasting and grasping onto leaves.
Although the Javan rhinoceros’ habitat was once protected in Vietnam, it has now lost most of its forest habitat due to habitat loss, degredation, agricultural purposes, and other human activities.
The Javan rhinoceros has poor eyesight, but keen senses of smell and hearing despite having smaller ears than other rhinoceroses.
A young Javan rhinoceros will be active shortly after birth and will be suckled by its mother for 1-2 years.
During colonial times, Javan rhinoceroses were killed by trophy hunters, but now, they’re relentlessly poached for their horns and meat as rhino horn can sell for $60,000/kg.
The Javan rhinoceros is threatened by the invasive Arenga palm, which is having a devastating impact on the plants the rhino relies on for food.
The Javan rhinoceros population in Ujung Julon National Park has been increasing over the past 5 years and the feasibility of establishing a second population in another suitable, secure habitat is being considered.
Although there’s historically been 22 captive Javan rhinoceroses, none are currently captive and the species has never bred in captivity.
Following the Vietnam war in 1975, the Javan rhinoceros was thought to be extinct in Vietnam, but was later spotted in the area in 1999.
The Javan rhinoceros is a pure, herbivorous browser but was historically a mixed feeder, a more adaptable feeder than other rhinos.