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Now forbidden, African penguin guano was once excavated and processed into fertilizer and their skins were manufactured into gloves.

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African penguins are popular in ecotourism as they allow humans to approach closely and watch as they interact with their environment.

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The primary ecotourism viewing site of African penguins is the colony at False Bay in Simons Town, South Africa with over 2,000 penguins.

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Because food availability affects African penguin breeding and survival rates, food shortages in South Africa and Namibia can't maintain population equilibrium.

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Both African penguin parents take part in incubating the egg for 40 days using a "brood patch," a patch of a bare skin at the base of the belly, to provide...

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African penguins closely resemble the Galapagos penguins of the Pacific Ocean and Humboldt penguins and Magellanic penguins of South America.

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African penguins are monogamous as pairs return to the same breeding sites year after year.

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Juvenile African penguins initially have dark slate gray-blue feathers that darken with age in about 3 years.

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African penguins can swim up to 20 km/h and can travel up to 110 km during each hunting trip, depending on where they forage.

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African penguins are also called jackass penguins because they emit loud donkey-like brays, yells, and haws to communicate.

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Cape fur seals, sharks, kelp gulls, sacred ibises, mongooses, genets, leopards, and even feral cats and dogs prey on African penguins and their eggs.

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The African penguin is endangered and is undergoing a population decline, as a result of commercial fisheries, oil pollution, and shifts in prey populations.

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The black and white markings of the African penguin help to camouflage it from both, aquatic and aerial, predators.

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African penguins are the most common penguin found in zoos due to their size and temperature requirements.

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Male African penguins are distinguishable from females due to their colors and deeper, more robust bills.

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African penguins have a longevity of 10-27 years and live longer in captivity than in the wild.

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African penguin populations have decreased 50% since 1978, due to nesting and guano collection disturbance, habitat alteration, oil pollution, and competition with fisheries for food.

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African penguins can no longer nest in guano due to overharvesting by humans and have begun nesting in open areas and artificial nest-burrows.

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African penguins feed on up to 18 species of crustaceans, primarily on small shoaling pelagic fish.

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African penguins are largely resident, but some movements occur in response to prey movements.

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African penguin courtship involves visual and auditory displays, such as head-swinging, neck extensions, harsh vocal calls, and bowing.

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African penguins are marine and usually found within 40 km of the coast, but can remain at sea for up to 4 months.

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At 2-4 months, juvenile African penguins leave the colony and later return to breed at 4-6 years.

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African penguins breed throughout the year with peak months varying locally.

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African penguins gather in breeding areas, called "rookeries," that range from flat, sandy islands with varying degrees of vegetation to steep, rocky islands with little foliage.

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African penguins have white, bare skin over their eyes that becomes bright pinkish-red in very hot conditions.

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While foraging for food, African penguins leave their hatchlings in crèches, characteristic groups common to birds that breed in colonies.

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Fighting between African penguins occurs occasionally and involves the beating of wings and biting.

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African penguins are susceptible to four types of blood parasites.

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African penguins are diurnal and spend much of the day feeding in the water.

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African penguins are social creatures that live in large colonies of up to 2,000, on the rocky coastlines of southwest Africa.

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African penguins cannot easily preen their own heads and necks, and as such, participate in allopreening, or the preening of each other.

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The African penguin is the only penguin species found on the African continent.