Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone’s flying fox receives the highest level of legal protection available within the Union of the Comoros, “integrally-protected species” and is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

The Livingstone’s flying fox receives the highest level of legal protection available within the Union of the Comoros.

It is listed as an “integrally-protected species”, which prohibits the capture or detention of individuals without a permit. This law also expressly prohibits the killing of flying fox individuals; transport, purchase, sale, export or re-export of live or dead flying fox individuals or body parts; all disruption during the period of reproduction and raising of young; and the destruction of roosts.

The Union of the Comoros also ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1994, and in response has developed a National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy. This strategy highlights the importance of, threats to, and conservation recommendations for fruit bats of the Union of the Comoros.

The Livingstone’s flying fox is also listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, or CITES, which prevents international trade in specimens of this species without a permit. In practice, however, enforcement activities within the Comoros for these laws and treaties have been very limited in scope.


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewall, et al., 2007)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Because the Livingstone’s flying fox’s small population is restricted to such a limited range, the species is susceptible to single threatening processes, like cyclones, that could rapidly affect its entire range.

The Livingstone’s flying fox’s small population is found within a restricted range solely on two small, adjacent islands. The species is therefore susceptible to single threatening processes, like cyclones, that could simultaneously or rapidly affect its entire range.


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewall, et al., 2007)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Because of their thermal sensitivity, Livingstone’s flying foxes roost near rivers and other humid environments, but the loss of forests has resulted in the drying of nearly all rivers on Anjouan and many on Mohéli.

Roost sites represent critical habitat for the Livingstone’s flying fox, yet tree felling has destroyed a number of roosts, leading to displacement of bats to less impacted areas, often at higher elevations.

Of 23 roosts occupied in 2007, three roosts have been abandoned due to clear felling of forest in the past five years, and only one new, but very small, roost of 15 bats has been uncovered despite extensive searching efforts. This new roost was found in a patch of degraded forest at 1,050 meters, the first to be found at such a high elevation, and is believed to have been established very recently.

On Anjouan, forest clearance, underplanting or significant soil erosion following deforestation upslope of the roost was found within 50 meters of all but one of the 16 occupied roosts. Further, the replacement of native forests with agricultural lands on Anjouan and Mohéli may render formerly inaccessible roost sites on Anjouan and Mohéli more accessible, possibly exposing roosts to increased levels of human disturbance. Finally, the loss of native forests has resulted in impermanence or complete drying of nearly all rivers on Anjouan and many on Mohéli. As Livingstone’s flying fox roosts are often associated with rivers and other humid environments, a factor which may be related to their thermal sensitivity, this loss of rivers may additionally affect the quality of roosting habitat.


Image | © Aardwolf6886, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Daniel, et al., 2016; Granek, 2002, Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewall, et al., 2007, 2011; Trewhella, et al. 2005)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

After mating, male Livingstone’s flying foxes will leave the female to raise and care for the young, weaning them for 4-6 months.

There is limited information available specifically on parental investment in the Livingstone’s flying fox, but males are known not to stay around after mating, leaving the females to raise and care for the young.

The young are weaned within 4 to 6 months of being born.


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Gould, Woolf, & Turner, 1973; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Over the past 20 years, the Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat, the Comoros, has lost 75% of its remaining forests, the fastest rate of any country in the world.

The Livingstone’s flying fox is threatened principally by the continuing degradation, fragmentation, and loss of its forest habitat. Over the last few decades, the Comoros have undergone a sustained, rapid deforestation, resulting in the loss of nearly all its native forests. Data quality on rates of habitat loss is poor, but best estimates are that during the past 20 years alone, the country has lost 75% of its remaining forests, the fastest rate of any country in the world.

This habitat change is caused by cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction, and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use for subsistence agriculture and for export crops such as cloves.


Image | © Andrew Thompson, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Doulton, et al., 2015; Malik, 2013; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewall, et al., 2007, 2011)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone’s flying fox can be long-lived in captivity, but its longevity isn’t well-documented and is estimated to be 15-30 years based on other Pteropus species.

The Livingstone’s flying fox can be long-lived in captivity. One founder captured as an adult in 1992 is still alive and has now lived 22 years in captivity.

However, there is very little information known about this species of bat in either captivity or in the wild.

Other Pteropus species are known to live up to 30 years in captivity, and around 10 years or more in the wild.


Image | © M Jean Marie PARIS, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Although preyed on by arboreal snakes and raptors, the Livingstone’s flying fox’s primary predators are humans, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction.

Other predators have not been documented, but large arboreal snakes and raptors make take young and adult Livingstone’s flying foxes.

Humans are the primary predators of the species, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction.

The species is suspected to suffer from catastrophic habitat decline caused by the cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use. This has resulted in extensive declines in the species’ area of occupancy, the extent of its occurrence, and the quality of its habitat. Rapid destruction of the forest habitats the bat relies on indicates these flying foxes may become extinct within 10 years.

Human pressures on native forests are expected to continue, as the growth rate of the human population remains high, with an annual increase of 2.5%.


Image | © M Jean Marie PARIS, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Emanoil, Edward, Kasinec, 1994; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003; Malik, 2013; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Although the Livingstone’s flying fox does not occur in any protected areas, critical roosting habitat at 7 vital roost sites has been identified as a key goal in a conservation action plan.

The Livingstone’s flying fox does not occur in any protected areas.

However, critical roosting habitat at seven key roost sites that together harbored more than half the population was identified during the development of the Conservation Action Plan for Livingstone’s Flying Fox. Habitat conservation of these roost sites was identified as a key goal in this plan.

As part of its implementation, Action Comores Anjouan and the Comoros Forest Reserves Project conducted a conservation assessment to identify the two highest-priority sites, roost sites Yiméré on Anjouan and Hassera-Ndrengé on Mohéli, where the establishment of protected areas for roost habitat would be both highly beneficial to biodiversity conservation and highly feasible. These two groups also completed conservation planning for protection of critical roosting habitat at all seven of these critical roost sites.

Implementation efforts by Action Comores Anjouan and partners to conserve habitat around critical roosting habitat on Anjouan and Mohéli are under development. A project to establish larger reserves to protect rainforest and cloud forest on both Anjouan and Mohéli, which would include roosting and foraging habitat for this species, has been proposed by the United Nations Development Programme, the Global Environmental Facility, and the Comorian government.

The success of habitat conservation and restoration efforts will be particularly critical to the long-term prospects for this species.


Image | © Josh More, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewall, et al., 2007, 2011)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone’s flying fox has not been recorded in low elevations in the past 5 years and has retreated to higher elevations as nearly all of its native lower-elevation forests have been lost to habitat change.

With continuing habitat change, the Livingstone’s flying fox has retreated to higher elevations.

On the island of Anjouan, the Livingstone’s flying fox avoids all lower elevations with the lowest record of feeding at 300 meters asl. On Mohéli, some limited forest patches extend to near sea level and the lowest record of feeding is at 40 meters asl.

Even above these elevations, forest habitat on both islands, and especially Anjouan, has undergone extensive and continuing habitat degradation, fragmentation, and loss, leaving large areas increasingly unsuitable for this species. Nearly all lower-elevation native forests have been lost, and in the past five years, there have been no records of this species below approximately 450 meters on Anjouan or below 200 meters on Mohéli.

The total land area of Anjouan and Mohéli is a combined 635 km². However, not all this area is occupied by the Livingstone’s flying fox. The species is found within a combined area on the two islands ranging from 99.1 km² (minimum convex polygons around all known currently occupied long-term roost sites: Anjouan = 90.2 km² Mohéli = 8.9 km²) to 462.5 km² (minimum convex polygons around all potential but unconfirmed foraging and roosting areas in native forest, degraded forest and agroforestry habitats above the lowest elevation of recent sightings on each island [450m-1050m asl on Anjouan, and above 200m asl on Moheli]: Anjouan = 326.9 km², Mohéli = 135.6 km²). These two figures represent the possible range of this species on the two islands it inhabits. This represents a substantial decline over the past five years.


Image | © Andrew Thompson, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Daniel, et al., 2016; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewall, et al., 2007, 2011)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone’s flying foxes breed from January-June and give birth to a single young in July-October after a gestation of 4-6 months.

The breeding season for the Livingstone’s flying fox is from January through June.

Gestation lasts 4 to 6 months, after which a single young is born between July and October.


Image | © Aardwolf6886, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Global climate change could negatively affect the availability of suitable roosting habitat for the Livingstone’s flying fox.

The mean surface temperature of the Comoros is thought to have increased about 1° Celsius since 1900 and is expected to increase by 1-3° Celsius more by 2100 due to global climate change.

It is unclear whether or how such changes will affect the Livingstone’s flying fox, but since thermal characteristics are important components of roost suitability for this and other Pteropus species, predicted temperature increases could negatively affect the availability of suitable roosting habitat.


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Granek, 2002; Pierson & Rainey, 1992; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Stocker, et al., 2013)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

There is no information on the Livingstone’s flying fox’s home range, but it’s known to be non-migratory.

There is no available information on the home range of Livingstone’s flying foxes, but it is known that they do not migrate.


Image | © M Jean Marie PARIS, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone’s flying foxes prefer to roost and forage in emergent trees, primarily on steep-sided valleys with southeast facing slopes, near ridge tops and in areas generally associated with dense natural vegetation.

The Livingstone’s flying fox roosts and forages primarily in native forests and underplanted forests and avoids areas heavily affected by human disturbance.

They prefer to roost in emergent trees, primarily on steep-sided valleys with southeast facing slopes, near ridge tops and in areas generally associated with dense natural vegetation. Populations of this bat are largely confined to primary tropical moist forest, especially in montane areas.

Specifically, on Anjouan, all the major roosts are restricted to a narrow mid-altitudinal range (600-960 meter above sea level) and are strongly associated with the presence of native and endemic trees, with most of the largest roosts located in dense canopy, old growth forest.

Ficus esperata, Girostpula comoriensis, Gambeya spp., Ficus lutea, and Nuxia pseudodentata are the five most commonly used tree species for roosting.


Image | © Deborah Luffman, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Daniel, et al. 2016; Granek, 2002; Dewey & Long, 2007; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003; Mickleburgh, Hutson, & Racey, 1992; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewell, et al., 2007, 2011)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Like other pteropodids, Livingstone’s flying foxes are nocturnal, active in the evening and at night when foraging for fruit.

Like other pteropodids, Livingstone’s flying foxes are nocturnal. They are active in the evening and at night when foraging for fruit.

Females forage at night and return to their young in the maternity roost to nurse them.


Image | © Quaddles, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY 3.0)
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

There is an active captive-breeding program for the Livingstone’s flying fox that has increased the captive population from 17 to 59 individuals across four different institutions.

There is an active captive-breeding program underway for the Livingstone’s flying fox initiated by Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in 1992.

The program began with 17 founder individuals, 7 females and 10 males, captured from the wild on Anjouan during 1992-1995.

The captive population of the bat subsequently expanded at a slower rate than other fruit bat species in captive breeding programs, such as the Rodrigues flying fox (Pteropus rodricensis), at least initially. However, by 2014, the Livingstone’s flying fox captive population had reached 59 individuals, 22 females and 37 males, housed at four institutions: the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in Jersey, U.K.; Bristol, Clifton; West of England Zoological Society, in Bristol, U.K.; North of England Zoological Society in Chester, U.K.; and Lisieux Cerza in Lisieux, France.


Image | © M Jean Marie PARIS, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Clark, et al., 1997; O’Brien, 2011; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Unlike other bats in the Comoros, the Livingstone’s flying fox is not normally hunted for food, possibly due to cultural taboos or the bat’s inaccessible roosting areas.

There is no evidence that the Livingstone’s flying fox is hunted for food, a key factor affecting other fruit bat species. This may be due in part to cultural taboos among the majority of the population that surround consumption of fruit bats. However, the apparent lack of hunting may also be due in part to the bat’s habit of roosting in inaccessible areas remote from towns.

Some limited hunting of the other two fruit bat species in the Comoros has been occasionally recorded.

It is unclear if the increased access to formerly inaccessible roost areas could expose the bats to any hunting pressure in the future, but any such hunting would likely first affect the flying fox’s congener, the seychelles flying fox (Pteropus seychellensis comorensis), which sometimes roosts and forages in visible locations in or near towns.


Image | © M Jean Marie PARIS, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Mickleburgh, Hutson, & Racey, 1992; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Trewhella, et al., 2005)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Unlike other nocturnal bats, Livingstone’s flying foxes are capable of soaring on air thermals and glide, rather than fly directly.

Unlike other nocturnal bats, Livingstone’s flying foxes are capable of soaring on air thermals.

Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide and circle in an attempt to gain height, rather than fly directly. They use updrafts of warm air to help extend their gliding distance.

Their wings have a wingspan of up to 1.5 meters (4 feet, 7 inches), an aspect ratio of 6.52, and a wing loading of 25.8 N/m2, and have been estimated to have a turning circle of 11.3 meters (37 feet).


Image | © M Jean Marie PARIS, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003; Wikipedia, 2018)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone’s flying fox is “Critically Endangered” due to serious population decline and an 80% habitat loss over the past 3 generations, caused by deforestation, construction, and agriculture.

The Livingstone’s flying fox is listed as Critically Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species because of a serious population decline.

The species is suspected to suffer from catastrophic habitat decline caused by the cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use. This has resulted in extensive declines in the species’ area of occupancy, the extent of its occurrence, and the quality of its habitat.

True population change in the Livingstone’s flying fox is unknown and data on habitat change over time is limited. However, the species qualifies for the Critically Endangered status under the A2c criterion because best estimates indicate habitat loss has exceeded 80% over the past three generations (estimated generation length: 8.1 years/generation), because remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and because declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing.

The Livingstone’s flying fox also meets the Endangered threshold under a second criterion, B1. The geographic range is small, such that the current extent of occurrence is estimated to be 1,856 km², less than the Endangered threshold of 5,000 km² under criterion B1. In addition, the habitat is severely fragmented, and there have been clear, continuing, observed declines in extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, habitat quality, and number of locations. Declines in the number of mature individuals are also inferred from these declines in habitat. Therefore, this species would also be listed as Endangered under criterion B1ab(i, ii, iii, iv, v).


Image | © Josh More, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone’s flying foxes are polygynous, but females will mate with more than one male throughout their lifetimes.

Livingstone’s flying foxes are polygynous as males attempt to mate with as many females as they can. Females will, however, mate with more than one male throughout their lifetimes.


Image | © Aardwolf6886, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone’s flying fox’s black and tawny fur, rounded ears, and red-orange eyes distinguishes it from other pteropodids.

The Livingstone’s flying fox has three features that distinguishes it from most other pteropodids, its black and tawny pelage, semicircular ears, and red-orange eyes.

It has a mostly black pelage with golden or tawny tinges on the rump, sides of the belly, and at times on each shoulder. The amount of golden hair varies between individuals with some having a narrow band of golden fur down the back with others being pure black without any paler hair at all.

The bat’s wings, legs, nose, and large, rounded, unique semicircular ears are black and hairless.

The Livingstone flying fox has large, red-orange eyes and well-developed vision.

These bats weigh from 500 to 800 grams (18-28 ounces), have a wingspan up to 1.5 meters (4 feet, 7 inches), and are about 30 centimeters (12 inches) in body length.

Livingstone’s flying foxes do not exhibit sexual dimorphism.


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Emanoil, Edward, Kasinec, 1994; Wikipedia, 2018)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Despite what some may think, the Livingstone’s flying fox is not blind and actually has good vision.

Despite what some may think, the Livingstone’s flying fox is not blind and actually has good vision.


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Dechmann & Safi, 2005)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone’s flying foxes are one of the most endangered bat species, with 400-1,300 remaining individuals, and may become extinct within 10 years.

Livingstone’s flying foxes are one of the most critically endangered bat species, with an estimated population size of 400-1,300 individuals.

True changes in the population size of the Livingstone’s flying fox are currently unknown, and data on habitat change over time is limited but is likely to be linked to changes in forest and underplanted forest habitat.

Repeated simultaneous surveys of all 23 known roosts during 1998-2006 typically recorded about 1,200 bats. Many of these roosts were located as a result of the implementation of a national monitoring program. Surveys have been conducted only sporadically since 2007, so it is unclear whether populations have changed recently. However, a survey conducted with sequential visits to all previously-known roosts in 2011 and 2012 estimated 1,300 bats across 22 roosts (Anjouan: 940 bats at 16 roosts, Mohéli: 360 bats at 6 roosts).

Rapid destruction of the forest habitats the Livingstone’s flying fox rely on indicates these bats may become extinct within 10 years. Best estimates, derived from the little available data on forest loss rates, suggest that habitat decline over the most recent three generation, or 24.3-year period, was 83%. Thus, the best estimate of loss of P. livingstonii habitat exceeds the threshold under the A2 criterion for Critically Endangered status (≥80% loss of population, as suspected by habitat change, over a three-generation period, where habitat loss is ongoing).


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Daniel, et al., 2016; Dewey & Long, 2007; Malik, 2013; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewall, et al., 2007; Trewhella, et al., 2005)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Like most mammals, Livingstone’s flying foxes often use vocalizations and chemoreception to communicate.

Livingstone’s flying foxes often use vocalizations to communicate.

Like most mammals, chemoreception is important in communicating sexual receptiveness.


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Dechmann & Safi, 2005)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone’s flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species, pollinate plants, and ultimately regenerate forests.

Members of the genus Pteropus are important in the dispersal of seeds in the forests they inhabit. They are often seen as keystone species because they maintain forest regeneration patterns.

As such, Livingstone’s flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species and sometimes pollinate plants.

There are no adverse effects of Comoro black flying foxes on humans.


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to the islands of Anjouan and Mohéli of the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa.

The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa, where it is only found on the islands of Anjouan, also called Nzwani, and Mohéli, also called Mwali.

The Extent of Occurrence is estimated as 1,856 km². This includes unsuitable areas of land and ocean located between patches of suitable habitat.

The total land area of Anjouan and Mohéli is a combined 635 km². However, not all this area is occupied by the Livingstone’s flying fox. The species is found within a combined area on the two islands ranging from 99.1 km² to 462.5 km². These two figures represent the possible range of this species on the two islands it inhabits. This represents a substantial decline over the past five years.

A land cover classification conducted in 2012 using high-resolution satellite imagery and extensive ground-truthing found the combined area of native forest, forest with little trace of human impact and a closed canopy, on both islands was 54.7 km² (29.6 km² in Anjouan; 25.1 km² in Moheli). The combined area of native forest and degraded forest, forest either underplanted with crops, or with localized logging or clearance for fuelwood, on both islands was 143.1 km².

Within the smallest total range on both islands, the area around all known currently occupied long-term roost sites, the Area of Occupancy is estimated to be 65.0 km². Within the largest total range on both islands, the equivalent estimate for Area of Occupancy is 188.4 km². Thus, the estimated total Area of Occupancy for this species is 65.0 – 188.4 km².


Image | © Andrew Thompson, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Daniel, et al., 2016; Dewey & Long, 2007; Green, 2014; Emanoil, Edward, Kasinec, 1994; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Wikipedia, 2018)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

During the rainy season when more food is available, Livingstone’s flying foxes feed on a variety of fruits, but during the dry season, they eat selectively and mostly rely on the giant-leaved fig tree.

In the dry season, Livingstone’s flying foxes tend to be much more selective on what and where they feed, preferring fig trees, but in the rainy season when more food is available, they feed on a larger variety of fruits.

A very important tree for the Livingstone’s flying fox and the Seychelles flying fox (Pteropus seychellensis) during the dry season is the giant-leaved fig tree (Ficus lutea). This tree is chosen over many other fig trees.


Image | © Deborah Luffman, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Sewall, 2002; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, Davies, Reason, & Wray, 2001)

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Livingstone's Flying Fox

Do you think you know the Livingstone’s flying fox? Test your knowledge of Livingstone’s flying fox FaunaFacts with this trivia quiz!

Click on an answer choice to receive instant feedback. Red answers are incorrect, but allow you to continue guessing. Green answers are correct and will provide additional explanatory information. Sometimes more than one answer is correct!

Learn More About the Livingstone’s Flying Fox | Play on Quizizz

The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to what country?
Comoros
The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa, where it is only found on the islands of Anjouan, also called Nzwani, and Mohéli, also called Mwali.
Mayotte
Madagascar
Seychelles
What are Livingstone’s flying foxes considered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species?
Critically Endangered
The Livingstone’s flying fox is listed as Critically Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species because of a serious population decline.
Vulnerable
Endangered
Extinct in the Wild
What is the Livingstone’s flying fox’s diet?
Herbivorous
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit.
Carnivorous
Omnivorous
What are groups of Livingstone’s flying foxes called?
Harem
Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.
Cloud
Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.
Colony
Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.
Cauldron
Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.
During the past 20 years, the Comoros, where the Livingstone’s flying fox inhabits, has lost how much of its remaining forests?
75%
Over the last few decades, the Comoros have undergone a sustained, rapid deforestation, resulting in the loss of nearly all its native forests. Data quality on rates of habitat loss is poor, but best estimates are that during the past 20 years alone, the country has lost 75% of its remaining forests, the fastest rate of any country in the world.
20%
50%
95%
The generation length of the Livingstone’s flying fox is unknown, but is estimated to be 8.1 years.
True
Generation length for the wild population of the Livingstone’s flying fox is unknown, but several demographic parameters can be derived from the studbook for captive bats of this species. Females do not reproduce during the first few years of life in captivity. The minimum dam age at first reproduction has been 3.4 years, whereas the average dam age at first reproduction is 5.9 years, and the average age of females giving birth is elevated (of all dams born in captivity that have since died or are 10 years of age, mean age when giving birth = 8.1 years). Thus, based on studbook data, this last figure of 8.1 years represents our best estimate of the generation length of the captive population. This estimate may be conservative as most (75%) of these females are still alive and at least some presumably will reproduce again at a later age
False
The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to what continent?
Africa
The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa.
Asia
Australia
Europe
Human pressures on the Livingstone’s flying fox’s native forests are expected to continue, as the growth rate of the human population remains high, with an annual increase of how much?
2.5%
Human pressures on native forests are expected to continue, as the growth rate of the human population remains high, with an annual increase of 2.5%.
12.5%
25%
52%
How do Livingstone’s flying foxes positively affect their native ecosystem?
Seed Dispersal
Members of the genus Pteropus are important in the dispersal of seeds in the forests they inhabit. They are often seen as keystone species because they maintain forest regeneration patterns. As such, Livingstone’s flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species and sometimes pollinate plants.
Forest Regeneration
Members of the genus Pteropus are important in the dispersal of seeds in the forests they inhabit. They are often seen as keystone species because they maintain forest regeneration patterns. As such, Livingstone’s flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species and sometimes pollinate plants.
Plant Pollination
Members of the genus Pteropus are important in the dispersal of seeds in the forests they inhabit. They are often seen as keystone species because they maintain forest regeneration patterns. As such, Livingstone’s flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species and sometimes pollinate plants.
Disease Prevention
When is the Livingstone’s flying fox’s breeding season?
January-June
The breeding season for the Livingstone’s flying fox is from January through June.
July-December
What types of communication do Livingstone’s flying foxes most rely on?
Auditory
Livingstone’s flying foxes often use vocalizations to communicate. Like most mammals, chemoreception is important in communicating sexual receptiveness.
Chemical
Livingstone’s flying foxes often use vocalizations to communicate. Like most mammals, chemoreception is important in communicating sexual receptiveness.
Tactile
Visual
Why do Livingstone’s flying foxes roost near rivers and other humid environments?
Thermal Sensitivity
Livingstone’s flying fox roosts are often associated with rivers and other humid environments, a factor which may be related to their thermal sensitivity.
Predator Aversion
Food Availability
Water Requirements
Livingstone’s flying foxes are one of the most critically endangered bat species.
True
Livingstone’s flying foxes are one of the most critically endangered bat species.
False
When was a captive-breeding program initiated for the Livingstone’s flying fox?
1992
There is an active captive-breeding program underway for the Livingstone’s flying fox initiated by Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in 1992.
1929
2002
2019
How many Livingstone’s flying foxes are estimated to remain?
400-1,300
Livingstone’s flying foxes are one of the most critically endangered bat species, with an estimated population size of 400-1,300 individuals.
100-300
3,000-4,000
10,000-14,000
What is the mating system of the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Polygynous
Livingstone’s flying foxes are polygynous as males attempt to mate with as many females as they can. Females will, however, mate with more than one male throughout their lifetimes.
Monogamous
Polyandrous
Ploygynandrous
Livingstone’s flying foxes are blind.
False
Despite what some may think, the Livingstone’s flying fox is not blind and actually has good vision.
True
Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide, rather than fly directly.
True
Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide, rather than fly directly.
False
The Livingstone’s flying fox’s small population is found within a restricted range solely on how many small, adjacent islands?
2
The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa, where it is only found on two islands: Anjouan, also called Nzwani, and Mohéli, also called Mwali.
3
4
5
What kind of legal protection does the Livingstone’s flying fox receive within the Union of the Comoros?
Highest Level
The Livingstone’s flying fox receives the highest level of legal protection available within the Union of the Comoros. It is listed as an “integrally-protected species”, which prohibits the capture or detention of individuals without a permit. This law also expressly prohibits the killing of flying fox individuals; transport, purchase, sale, export or re-export of live or dead flying fox individuals or body parts; all disruption during the period of reproduction and raising of young; and the destruction of roosts.
Lowest Level
None
What threatens the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Habitat Loss
The species is suspected to suffer from catastrophic habitat decline caused by the cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use. This has resulted in extensive declines in the species’ area of occupancy, the extent of its occurrence, and the quality of its habitat. The remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing. Lastly, the geographic range is small.
Habitat Defragmentation
The species is suspected to suffer from catastrophic habitat decline caused by the cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use. This has resulted in extensive declines in the species’ area of occupancy, the extent of its occurrence, and the quality of its habitat. The remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing. Lastly, the geographic range is small.
Small Range
The species is suspected to suffer from catastrophic habitat decline caused by the cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use. This has resulted in extensive declines in the species’ area of occupancy, the extent of its occurrence, and the quality of its habitat. The remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing. Lastly, the geographic range is small.
High Predator Populations
The loss of native forests has resulted in impermanence or complete drying of nearly all rivers in the Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat.
True
The loss of native forests has resulted in impermanence or complete drying of nearly all rivers on Anjouan and many on Mohéli.
False
Global climate change could negatively affect the availability of suitable roosting habitat for the Livingstone’s flying fox.
True
The mean surface temperature of the Comoros is thought to have increased about 1° Celsius since 1900 and is expected to increase by 1-3° Celsius more by 2100 due to global climate change. It is unclear whether or how such changes will affect the Livingstone’s flying fox, but since thermal characteristics are important components of roost suitability for this and other Pteropus species, predicted temperature increases could negatively affect the availability of suitable roosting habitat.
False
Livingstone’s flying foxes are migratory.
False
There is no available information on the home range of Livingstone’s flying foxes, but it is known that they do not migrate.
True
What sense do Livingstone’s flying foxes rely on to determine if fruit is ripe enough to eat?
Smell
In general, Pteropus species use olfaction to find fruiting trees and determine if fruit is ripe enough to eat.
Sight
Hearing
Taste
What physical features distinguishes the Livingstone’s flying fox from most other pteropodids?
Black & Tawny Fur
The Livingstone’s flying fox has three features that distinguishes it from most other pteropodids, its black and tawny fur, rounded ears, and red-orange eyes.
Rounded Ears
The Livingstone’s flying fox has three features that distinguishes it from most other pteropodids, its black and tawny fur, rounded ears, and red-orange eyes.
Red-Orange Eyes
The Livingstone’s flying fox has three features that distinguishes it from most other pteropodids, its black and tawny fur, rounded ears, and red-orange eyes.
Black, Hairless Wings
With continuing habitat change, where has the Livingstone’s flying fox retreated?
Higher Elevations
With continuing habitat change, the Livingstone’s flying fox has retreated to higher elevations.
Lower Elevations
There are numerous conservation action plans and programs in place to help preserve the Livingstone’s flying fox.
True
The Conservation Action Plan for Livingstone’s Flying Fox has been adopted by the government of the Union of the Comoros and is just one of many programs intended to help the Livingstone’s flying fox.
False
What kind of herbivore is the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Frugivore
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit.
Folivore
Detritivore
Ruminant
How long does Livingstone’s flying fox weaning last?
4-6 Months
The young are weaned within 4 to 6 months of being born.
2-4 Months
6-12 Months
12-18 Months
The Livingstone’s flying fox occurs in protected areas.
False
The Livingstone’s flying fox does not occur in any protected areas.
True
When are Livingstone’s flying foxes born?
Summer-Fall
Gestation lasts 4 to 6 months, after which the young is born between July and October.
Fall-Winter
Winter-Spring
Spring-Summer
When are Livingstone flying foxes much more selective on what and where they feed?
Dry Season
In the dry season, Livingstone’s flying foxes tend to be much more selective on what and where they feed, preferring fig trees, but in the rainy season when more food is available, they feed on a larger variety of fruits.
Rainy Season
Why are trees felled in the Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat?
Fuelwood
The Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat change is caused by cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction, and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use for subsistence agriculture and for export crops such as cloves.
Construction
The Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat change is caused by cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction, and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use for subsistence agriculture and for export crops such as cloves.
Agricultural Use
The Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat change is caused by cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction, and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use for subsistence agriculture and for export crops such as cloves.
Ranching Livestock
Rapid destruction of the Livingstone’s flying fox’s forest habitats indicates these bats may become extinct within 10 years.
True
Rapid destruction of the forest habitats the Livingstone’s flying fox rely on indicates these bats may become extinct within 10 years.
False
In what type of habitat does the Livingstone’s flying fox reside?
Forest
The Livingstone’s flying fox roosts and forages primarily in native forests and underplanted forests and avoids areas heavily affected by human disturbance.
Caves & Subterranean
Rocky Areas
Shrubland
Livingstone’s flying foxes are considered a nuisance.
False
There are no adverse effects of Livingstone’s flying foxes on humans and they avoid areas heavily affected by human disturbance.
True
What is the rhythm of the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Nocturnal
Like other pteropodids, Livingstone’s flying foxes are nocturnal. They are active in the evening and at night when foraging for fruit. Females forage at night and return to their young in the maternity roost to nurse them.
Diurnal
Crepuscular
Cathemeral
What is the lifespan of the Livingstone’s flying fox?
15-30 Years
The Livingstone’s flying fox can be long-lived in captivity, but its longevity isn’t well-documented and is estimated to be 15-30 years based on other Pteropus species.
1-5 Years
5-15 Years
30-50 Years
Livingstone’s flying foxes exhibit sexual dimorphism.
False
Livingstone’s flying foxes do not exhibit sexual dimorphism.
True, Males are Larger
True, Females are Larger
The Livingstone’s flying fox breeding program has increased the captive population from 17 to how many individuals?
59
The captive population of the bat subsequently expanded at a slower rate than other fruit bat species in captive breeding programs, such as the Rodrigues flying fox (Pteropus rodricensis), at least initially. However, by 2014, the Livingstone’s flying fox captive population had reached 59 individuals, 22 females and 37 males, housed at four institutions: the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in Jersey, U.K.; Bristol, Clifton; West of England Zoological Society, in Bristol, U.K.; North of England Zoological Society in Chester, U.K.; and Lisieux Cerza in Lisieux, France.
29
109
509
Both male and female Livingstone’s flying foxes partake in parental investment.
False
There is limited information available specifically on parental investment in the Livingstone’s flying fox, but males are known not to stay around after mating, leaving the females to raise and care for the young.
True
What are predators of the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Humans
Humans are the primary predators of the species, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction. Other predators have not been documented, but large arboreal snakes and raptors make take young and adult Livingstone’s flying foxes.
Snakes
Humans are the primary predators of the species, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction. Other predators have not been documented, but large arboreal snakes and raptors make take young and adult Livingstone’s flying foxes.
Raptors
Humans are the primary predators of the species, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction. Other predators have not been documented, but large arboreal snakes and raptors make take young and adult Livingstone’s flying foxes.
Lemurs
Which tree is most important for the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Giant-Leaved Fig Tree
A very important tree for the Livingstone’s flying fox and the Seychelles flying fox (Pteropus seychellensis) during the dry season is the giant-leaved fig tree (Ficus lutea). This tree is chosen over many other fig trees.
Kapok
Antandronarum
Mangrove
How do Livingstone’s flying foxes most often gain height when flying?
Updrafts of Warm Air
Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide and circle in an attempt to gain height, rather than fly directly. They use updrafts of warm air to help extend their gliding distance.
Gliding
Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide and circle in an attempt to gain height, rather than fly directly. They use updrafts of warm air to help extend their gliding distance.
Circling
Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide and circle in an attempt to gain height, rather than fly directly. They use updrafts of warm air to help extend their gliding distance.
Flapping
How many key Livingstone’s flying fox roost sites have been identified?
7
Critical roosting habitat at seven key roost sites that together harbored more than half the population was identified during the development of the Conservation Action Plan for Livingstone’s Flying Fox. Habitat conservation of these roost sites was identified as a key goal in this plan.
2
17
32
Livingstone’s flying foxes prefer to roost on steep-sided valleys with slopes that face which direction?
Southeast
They prefer to roost in emergent trees, primarily on steep-sided valleys with southeast facing slopes, near ridge tops and in areas generally associated with dense natural vegetation.
Southwest
Northeast
Northwest
The Livingstone’s flying fox has taken advantage of elevational differences in tree fruiting phenology to compensate for seasonal variation in fruit availability.
True
The Livingstone’s flying fox may have naturally taken advantage of elevational differences in tree fruiting phenology to compensate for seasonal variation in fruit availability.
False
What is the average size of a group of Livingstone’s flying foxes?
15-150
Colony size typically ranges from 15 to 150 individuals. The largest known roosts have sometimes reached about 250 individuals during the rainy season, but not all of these are mature individuals.
1-15
150-1,500
1,500-5,000
What do Livingstone’s flying foxes feed on?
Fruit
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit. They also feed on nectar and leaves, to a lesser degree.
Nectar
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit. They also feed on nectar and leaves, to a lesser degree.
Leaves
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit. They also feed on nectar and leaves, to a lesser degree.
Insects
The habitat loss of the Livingstone’s flying fox’s has exceeded what percentage over the past 3 generations?
80%
True population change in the Livingstone’s flying fox is unknown and data on habitat change over time is limited. Best estimates indicate habitat loss has exceeded 80% over the past three generations (estimated generation length: 8.1 years/generation), because remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and because declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing.
20%
40%
60%
The Livingstone’s flying fox is hunted for food more than other bats in its region.
False
There is no evidence that the Livingstone’s flying fox is hunted for food, a key factor affecting other fruit bat species. This may be due in part to cultural taboos among the majority of the population that surround consumption of fruit bats. However, the apparent lack of hunting may also be due in part to the bat’s habit of roosting in inaccessible areas remote from towns. Some limited hunting of the other two fruit bat species in the Comoros has been occasionally recorded.
True
To how many young does a Livingstone’s flying fox typically give birth?
1
Gestation lasts 4 to 6 months, after which a single young is born.
5
10
20

How much did you know about the Livingstone’s flying fox? Share your results in the comments!

Learn More About the Livingstone’s Flying Fox

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed on a large variety of fruits, as well as nectar and leaves.

Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit. They also feed on nectar and leaves, to a lesser degree.

Feeding is principally on native species but also includes non-native kapok (Ceiba pentandra). Particularly important food sources are native giant-leaved fig trees (Ficus lutea) and Ficus antandronarum.

In general, Pteropus species use olfaction to find fruiting trees and determine if fruit is ripe enough to eat.


Image | © Andrew Thompson, All Rights Reserved
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Dechmann & Safi, 2005; Sewall, 2002; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, Davies, Reason, & Wray, 2001)

Learn More About the Livingstone’s Flying Fox

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone’s flying foxes are social and form groups of 15-250, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage.

Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.

Colony size typically ranges from 15 to 150 individuals. The largest known roosts have sometimes reached about 250 individuals during the rainy season, but not all of these are mature individuals.

In general, members of the genus Pteropus form maternity colonies where females and their young gather. Females forage at night and return to their young in the maternity roost to nurse them.


Image | © Aardwolf6886, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Dewey & Long, 2007; Gould, Woolf, & Turner, 1973; Hutchins, Kleiman, & Geist, 2003; Sewall, Young, Trewhella, Rodríguez-Clark, & Granek, 2016; Sewall, et al., 2007, 2011)

Learn More About the Livingstone’s Flying Fox

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone’s Flying Fox (Pteropus livingstonii)

Throughout the month of May 2019, FaunaFocus will feature its first bat, the Livingstone’s flying fox!

The Livingstone’s flying fox is an Old World fruit bat, or megabat, and is one of the largest and most endangered of the bat species. Endemic to only two islands of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa, this herbivorous frugivore resides in forests and is threatened by habitat loss and human influences. This species is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

 

GET INVOLVED

Create art inspired by the Livingstone’s flying fox and share it in the FaunaFocus Discord Server or on social media with #faunafocus. Learn about more ways to get involved with FaunaFocus!

 

EVENTS
Event Date Time (CDT)
Free-For-All: Deadline May 29 12:00 pm
Free-For-All: Livestream May 30 7:00 pm

 


Image | © Ben J Charles (CharlieJB), All Rights Reserved

Mule Deer

Mule Deer

Because of their acute hearing and excellent binocular vision, mule deer specialize in detecting danger long-range and can quickly detect and visually track another animal from as far as 600 meters away.

The mule deer has excellent binocular vision. While unable to detect motionless objects, it’s extraordinarily sensitive to moving objects. Males can quickly detect and visually track another animal from as far as 600 meters away.

Because of its large ears, the mule deer’s sense of hearing is also extremely acute.

Because of their acute hearing and excellent binocular vision, mule deer specialize in detecting danger at a very long range.


Image | © Tony’s Takes, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Anderson & Wallmo, 1984; Geist, 1981; Misuraca, 1999)

Learn More About the Mule Deer

Mule Deer

Mule Deer

To counter agricultural development, rangeland conversion, mining, road and highway construction, and the development of housing tracts, many government agencies have purchased critical areas to maintain for mule deer.

All federal, state, and provincial land and wildlife management agencies recognize the fundamental need to maintain mule deer ranges and keep them habitable. Where they occur, mule deer populations are typically managed by organizations that monitor abundance and trends in order to set species management objectives.

To counter the trend of agricultural development, rangeland conversion, mining, road and highway construction, and the development of housing tracts, many states and provinces have purchased critical areas, especially winter ranges, to maintain the various habitats of the mule deer. Due to political opposition to government acquisition of privately owned lands, plus a scarcity of funds for this purpose, only a small fraction of mule deer ranges has been acquired by the government.

Unfortunately, one obstacle involved in evaluating mule deer populations trend is inconsistent and incomplete data collections. This problem results from the wide variety of methodologies and approaches used by states and provinces for mule deer management. There is a real need to standardize many of the methodologies to obtain data collections and establish protocols to obtain those measurements about mule deer populations.


Image | © Tony’s Takes, Some Rights Reserved (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Misuraca, 1999; Sanchez-Rojas & Gallina, 2016; Wallmo, 1981)

Learn More About the Mule Deer

FFA
Judges
Noelle M. Brooks Deertush Stephen Scott (BlindCoyote)
Date April 2019 Theme Mule Deer
Entries 6 Winner Shadowind

As we approach FaunaFocus’ 2-Year Anniversary, the April 2019 Free-For-All has come to and end with six different entries drawing inspiration from the mule deer. From digital to traditional and analogous to fully chromatic, we were blessed with several beautiful artworks depicting this gentle herbivore.

Congratulations to April 2019’s FaunaFocus Free-For-All Winner, Shadowind who stunned the judges with an analogous composition filled with oranges, yellows, and golds. This piece displays a mule deer peryton leaping from a field of sunflowers amongst a flock of birds. With skilled anatomy and careful attention to detail, this piece captured the hearts of the judges with its warm and welcoming presence.

Shadowind will choose the FaunaFocus for June 2019, which will be announced at the end of May’s Free-For-All critique livestream. Shadowind was also last month’s Free-For-All winner, and has thus chosen the FaunaFocus for the month of April, FaunaFocus’ first bat species, the Livingstone’s flying fox!

 


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