African Penguin

African penguins are susceptible to four types of blood parasites.

Four types of blood parasites, Plasmodium relictum, Plasmodium elongatum, Plasmodium cathemerium, and Leucocytozoon tawaki have been recorded in African penguins.

Image | © Selbe Lynn, Some Rights Reserved
Sources | (Crawford, et al., 2001, 2006, 2008; Cunningham, et al., 2008; Jones & Shellam, 1999; Randall and Randall, 1990)

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