FaunaFocus
Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone's flying fox can be long-lived in captivity, but its longevity isn't well-documented and is estimated to be 15-30 years based on other Pteropus species.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Although preyed on by arboreal snakes and raptors, the Livingstone's flying fox's primary predators are humans, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Although the Livingstone's flying fox does not occur in any protected areas, critical roosting habitat at 7 vital roost sites has been identified as a key goal in a conservation action...

Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone's flying fox has not been recorded in low elevations in the past 5 years and has retreated to higher elevations as nearly all of its native lower-elevation forests have...

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone's flying foxes breed from January-June and give birth to a single young in July-October after a gestation of 4-6 months.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Global climate change could negatively affect the availability of suitable roosting habitat for the Livingstone's flying fox.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

There is no information on the Livingstone's flying fox's home range, but it's known to be non-migratory.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone's flying foxes prefer to roost and forage in emergent trees, primarily on steep-sided valleys with southeast facing slopes, near ridge tops and in areas generally associated with dense natural vegetation.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Like other pteropodids, Livingstone's flying foxes are nocturnal, active in the evening and at night when foraging for fruit.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

There is an active captive-breeding program for the Livingstone's flying fox that has increased the captive population from 17 to 59 individuals across four different institutions.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Unlike other bats in the Comoros, the Livingstone's flying fox is not normally hunted for food, possibly due to cultural taboos or the bat's inaccessible roosting areas.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Unlike other nocturnal bats, Livingstone's flying foxes are capable of soaring on air thermals and glide, rather than fly directly.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone's flying fox is "Critically Endangered" due to serious population decline and an 80% habitat loss over the past 3 generations, caused by deforestation, construction, and agriculture.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone's flying foxes are polygynous, but females will mate with more than one male throughout their lifetimes.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone's flying fox's black and tawny fur, rounded ears, and red-orange eyes distinguishes it from other pteropodids.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Despite what some may think, the Livingstone's flying fox is not blind and actually has good vision.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone's flying foxes are one of the most endangered bat species, with 400-1,300 remaining individuals, and may become extinct within 10 years.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Like most mammals, Livingstone's flying foxes often use vocalizations and chemoreception to communicate.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone's flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species, pollinate plants, and ultimately regenerate forests.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

The Livingstone's flying fox is endemic to the islands of Anjouan and Mohéli of the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

During the rainy season when more food is available, Livingstone's flying foxes feed on a variety of fruits, but during the dry season, they eat selectively and mostly rely on the...

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone's flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed on a large variety of fruits, as well as nectar and leaves.

Livingstone's Flying Fox

Livingstone's flying foxes are social and form groups of 15-250, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage.

Mule Deer

Because of their acute hearing and excellent binocular vision, mule deer specialize in detecting danger long-range and can quickly detect and visually track another animal from as far as 600 meters...

Mule Deer

To counter agricultural development, rangeland conversion, mining, road and highway construction, and the development of housing tracts, many government agencies have purchased critical areas to maintain for mule deer.

Mule Deer

The mule deer's most urgent threat is Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), but they are also threatened by high predator populations, competition with livestock grazing, and human-related...

Mule Deer

Both male and female mule deer experience parallel growth during their first year until males exceed females in body weight; chest girth; neck circumference; body, head, hindfoot, and hoof length; cranial...

Mule Deer

The mule deer is a target for various viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases such as gastrointestinal nematodes, parasitic meningeal worms, neurologic disease, and foot-and-mouth disease.

Mule Deer

Mule deer communication is facilitated by five integumentary glands which produce specific pheromones that elicit specific reactions.

Mule Deer

Mule deer weigh 2-5kg at birth, affected by litter size and sex as males are heavier than females.

Mule Deer

Although mule deer are "Least Concern" and not in need of conservation action, the Cedros Island subspecies is "Vulnerable" and in danger of becoming extinct because its densities are low and...

Mule Deer

Mule deer can give birth to 1 or 2 young, but 1st or 2nd time mothers most often have a single fawn.

Mule Deer

Mule deer have several distinct strategies for avoiding predators and may choose to hide or move into cover and cautiously outmaneuver the predator.