Leopards are polygynandrous and breed year-round, peaking during the rainy season in May.
The reproductive season of the leopard is year-round but peaks during the rainy season in May. In China and southern Siberia, leopards mainly breed in January and February.
Leopards are promiscuous and polygynandrous, as both males and females have multiple mates.
Females attract potential mates by excreting pheromones in their urine. Females initiate mating by walking back and forth in front of a male and brushing up against him or swatting him with her tail. The male then mounts the female while frequently biting her nape.
Copulation lasts an average of three seconds with six minute intervals between each copulation bout. A single breeding pair may copulate up to 100 times per day for several days, during which time they share food resources.
Females are in estrus for 7 days and have a 46 day long cycle. Gestation lasts 96 days and females usually give birth once every 15 to 24 months. Typically, females stop reproducing around 8.5 years old.