Lions, tigers, spotted hyaenas, and African wild dogs compete with leopards for food and are capable of killing leopards.
Lions (Panthera leo), tigers (Panthera tigris), spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), and African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) compete with leopards for food. These species also prey upon leopard cubs and are capable of killing adult leopards. Typically, when an adult is killed it is due to a territorial confrontation.
When competition for larger prey items is high, leopards prey on smaller animals, which reduces interspecific competition. They also avoid attacks from potential predators by hunting at different times of the day and avoiding areas where potential predators are most populous.