African penguin courtship involves visual and auditory displays, such as head-swinging, neck extensions, harsh vocal calls, and bowing.
African penguin courtship rituals typically begin with the male projecting visual and auditory displays to attract a mate.
Head-swinging motions usually refer to ownership of nest site, attracting females, and can be used as a warning for other males. The next stage is used to ensure a mutual bond is formed; which involves a harsh vocal call released while extending the neck and head upward. The final stage includes bowing, where one or both penguins duck the head while the bill points at the nest or at the other bird’s feet.