African penguins feed on up to 18 species of crustaceans, primarily on small shoaling pelagic fish.
Up to 18 species of crustaceans are prey to the African penguin.
Adult African penguins feed primarily on small schooling pelagic fish of 50-120 millimeter length, such as anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardines (Sardinops sagax), bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus), pilchards (Sardinops sagax), horse mackerel (Trachurus capensis), and round herrings (Etrumeus teres), supplemented by squid and crustaceans. In some localities, cephalopods represent an important food source.
Juveniles are thought to prey on fish larvae.
Sources: (Connan, Hofmeyr, & Pistorius, 2016; Crawford, Cruickshank, Shelton, & Kruger, 1985; Crawford, et al., 2006, 2011; Ludynia, Roux, Jones, Kemper, & Underhill, 2010; Randall & Randall, 1990; Pearce, 2011; Wilson, 1985)
Image: Jean Wimmerlin