Javan Rhinoceros Trivia

Javan Rhinoceros

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There are still major gaps in our knowledge about Javan rhinoceroses because they are extremely difficult to study.
True
There are still major gaps in our knowledge about Javan rhinos because they are extremely difficult to study. Because of its rarity, little is known about the Javan rhinoceros’ preferred habitat and the species’ life characteristics and biology. The gestation period, inter-birth intervals, sexual maturity, longevity, and average lifespan is currently unknown and must be presumed based on information from closely related rhinoceros species, such as the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) or greater one-horned rhino.
False

What is the Javan rhinoceros’ scientific name?
Rhinoceros sondaicus
The Javan rhinoceros’ scientific name is “Rhinoceros sondaicus”.
Ceratotherium simum
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
Rhinoceros unicornis

To which continent is the Javan rhinoceros endemic?
Asia
The Javan rhinoceros historically roamed across a vast swathe of Asia from north-eastern India through Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java. It probably lived in southern China, as well. The species’ precise historical range is indeterminate, as early accounts failed to distinguish rhinos to specific level, due to partial sympatry with the other two Asian rhino species, the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). Over the past 150 years, beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century, the Javan rhino was extirpated from most of its historical range and its range and population shrank dramatically. Now, there is just one population in a single national park in the Ujung Kulon peninsula on the Indonesian island of Java.
Africa
Europe
Australia

What National Park holds the only population of the Javan rhinoceros?
Ujung Kulon
Indonesia’s remote Ujung Kulon National Park on the western side of the island of Java holds the only viable population of the Javan rhinoceros.
Alas Purwo
Cat Tien
Kalibiru

What is the Javan rhinoceros’ diet?
Herbivorous
The Javan rhinoceros is a pure, herbivorous browser but was historically a mixed feeder, a more adaptable feeder than other rhinos.
Omnivorous
Carnivorous

Where does the Javan rhinoceros currently reside?
Java
The Javan rhinoceros historically roamed across a vast swathe of Asia from north-eastern India through Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java. It probably lived in southern China, as well. The species’ precise historical range is indeterminate, as early accounts failed to distinguish rhinos to specific level, due to partial sympatry with the other two Asian rhino species, the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). Over the past 150 years, beginning in the middle of the nineteenth century, the Javan rhino was extirpated from most of its historical range and its range and population shrank dramatically. Now, there is just one population in a single national park in the Ujung Kulon peninsula on the Indonesian island of Java.
Cambodia
Laos
Vietnam

What is the Javan rhinoceros considered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species?
Critically Endangered
Javan rhinos are listed as “Critically Endangered” on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species because there are fewer than 250 mature individuals, with no subpopulation greater than 50 individuals and the population is experiencing a continuing decline.
Endangered
Extinct in the Wild
Unevaluated

The Javan rhinoceros prefers areas with abundant water and mud wallows.
True
The Javan rhinoceros resides in incredibly dense, low-lying tropical rainforests. It especially prefers areas with abundant water and mud wallows.
False

The Javan rhinoceros’ gestation and inter-birth intervals are unknown.
True
The Javan rhinoceros’ gestation period is unknown, but is presumed to be approximately 15-16 months, as in other rhino species, like the closely related Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), or greater one-horned rhino. Inter-birth intervals are also unknown, but mothers are estimated to give birth to a single calf approximately every 2-3 years.
False

Eastern Asian medicine prefers horns from African rhinoceroses over Asian rhinoceroses.
False
Eastern Asian medicine views rhino horns as an important, if not essential part, of medicine. 60% of Eastern Asian doctors stock rhino horn, with Asian horns being preferred over their African counterparts.
True

Which of the Javan rhinoceros’ senses are keen?
Hearing
The Javan rhinoceros is known for having poor eyesight, but it has keen senses of smell and hearing despite having smaller ears than other rhinoceroses.
Smell
The Javan rhinoceros is known for having poor eyesight, but it has keen senses of smell and hearing despite having smaller ears than other rhinoceroses.
Sight
Taste

How long does a mother Javan rhinoceros suckle her young?
1-2 Years
A young Javan rhinoceros will be active shortly after birth and will be suckled by its mother for one to two years.
1-2 Days
1-2 Weeks
1-2 Months

Javan rhinoceroses were killed across their range by trophy hunters during colonial times.
True
Javan rhinoceroses were killed across their range by trophy hunters during colonial times.
False

What is the population trend of the Javan rhinoceros?
Increasing
The Javan rhinoceros’ population has been inching up over the past five years.
Stable
Decreasing

The Javan rhinoceros has been successfully bred in captivity.
False
There are currently no captive Javan rhinoceroses and the species has never bred in captivity.
True

Following the Vietnam War in 1975, the Javan rhinoceros was thought to be extinct in Vietnam.
True
Following the Vietnam war, the Javan rhinoceros was thought to be extinct in Vietnam as Agent Orange, land mines, and general warfare decimated the rhinoceros population.
False

Which are alternate names for the Javan rhinoceros?
Lesser One-Horned Rhinoceros
The Javan rhinoceros is also known as the Asian Lesser-One Horned Rhinoceros and Sunda Rhinoceros.
Sunda Rhinoceros
The Javan rhinoceros is also known as the Asian Lesser-One Horned Rhinoceros and Sunda Rhinoceros.
Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros
Sumatran Rhinoceros

On what do Javan rhinoceroses feed?
Fruit
In the tropical rainforest, where the species now survives, it’s a pure, herbivorous browser, but it was possibly a mixed feeder and both browsed and grazed on leaves, young shoots, twigs, and fruit in other parts of its historic range.
Leaves
In the tropical rainforest, where the species now survives, it’s a pure, herbivorous browser, but it was possibly a mixed feeder and both browsed and grazed on leaves, young shoots, twigs, and fruit in other parts of its historic range.
Shoots
In the tropical rainforest, where the species now survives, it’s a pure, herbivorous browser, but it was possibly a mixed feeder and both browsed and grazed on leaves, young shoots, twigs, and fruit in other parts of its historic range.
Twigs
In the tropical rainforest, where the species now survives, it’s a pure, herbivorous browser, but it was possibly a mixed feeder and both browsed and grazed on leaves, young shoots, twigs, and fruit in other parts of its historic range.

When does the Javan rhinoceros mate?
Summer-Fall
The Javan rhinoceros’ mating season occurs roughly from July to November.
Winter-Spring

Male Javan rhinoceroses have shorter, less prominent horns than females.
False
There is little sexual dimorphism in the Javan rhinoceros, however females have shorter, less prominent horns or may lack a horn entirely. The horns of males can grow to a length of 25 centimeters (10 inches).
True

The Javan rhinoceros’ habitat is currently protected.
True
The land on which the Javan rhino lives is currently protected as Ujung Kulon National Park. It is legally protected in all range states.
False

The Javan rhinoceros competes for food with the banteng.
True
The World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) is supporting efforts to enhance the rhino’s existing habitat by reducing human encroachment and competition for food with banteng (endangered wild cattle).
False

What traits led to the Javan rhinoceros’ scientific name?
Horned Nose
The Javan rhinoceros’ scientific name is “Rhinoceros sondaicus”. “Rhinoceros” comes from the Greek “rhino”, meaning “nose” and “ceros”, meaning “horn”. “Sondaicus” comes from Latin as “icus” indicates a locality. “Sonda” refers to the Sunda islands in Indoneisa and means “Java”.
Java Locality
The Javan rhinoceros’ scientific name is “Rhinoceros sondaicus”. “Rhinoceros” comes from the Greek “rhino”, meaning “nose” and “ceros”, meaning “horn”. “Sondaicus” comes from Latin as “icus” indicates a locality. “Sonda” refers to the Sunda islands in Indoneisa and means “Java”.
Small Body Size
Prehensile Upper Lip

Approximately, how many Javan rhinoceros individuals are alive today?
50
Approximately 46 to 67 Javan rhinoceroses are estimated to be living in the Ujung Kulon National Park in west Java, Indonesia. For decades, Javan rhino population estimates have hovered around 40-50 animals in Indonesia’s Ujung Kulon National Park. The most recent camera trap data show that there are now between 63 and 67 animals. The population is probably limited to the effective carrying capacity of the area, around 50 animals.
15
500
5,000

Female Javan rhinoceroses may lack a horn entirely.
True
There is little sexual dimorphism in the Javan rhinoceros, however females have shorter, less prominent horns or may lack a horn entirely.
False

The Javan rhinoceros has larger ears than other rhinoceroses.
False
The Javan rhinoceros is known for having poor eyesight, but it has keen senses of smell and hearing despite having smaller ears than other rhinoceroses.
True

How many Javan rhinoceros subspecies are recognized?
3
There are three recognized subspecies of the Javan rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus, Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus, and Rhinoceros sondaicus inermis.
1
2
4

How many extant rhinoceros species are there?
5
The Javan rhinoceros is one of the five remaining rhino species within the Rhinocerotidae family. Other extant rhinoceros species include the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), and White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).
3
10
13

As in other ungulates, the Javan rhinoceros’ teeth are lophodont, having transverse ridges on the grinding surfaces.
True
As in other ungulates, the Javan rhinoceros’ teeth are lophodont, having transverse ridges on the grinding surfaces.
False

How many hooved toes does a Javan rhinoceros have on each foot?
3
The Javan rhinoceros is an odd-toed terrestrial ungulate, a large hooved mammal. Each of the Javan rhinoceros’ feet ends in three hooved toes.
2
4
5

There are currently Javan rhinoceroses in captivity.
False
There are currently no captive Javan rhinoceroses and the species has never bred in captivity.
True

The Javan rhinoceros is the smallest rhinoceros.
False
The Javan rhinoceros is smaller than most other rhinoceros species. An average adult Javan rhino is approximately 11 to 12 feet in length with a height of 5 to 6 feet at the top of its shoulders.
True

What makes up the Javan rhinoceros’ horn?
Keratin
The Javan rhinoceros possesses a single horn on the top of its nose at the end of its snout, the smallest horn of all five extant rhinoceros species. Like human fingernails, the horn is made up of keratin.
Adipose
Cartilage
Bone

After being deemed extinct in Vietnam, the Javan rhinoceros was rediscovered there in what year?
1999
Following the Vietnam war, the Javan rhinoceros was thought to be extinct in Vietnam as Agent Orange, land mines, and general warfare decimated the rhinoceros population. In 1999, the Javan rhino was spotted in Vietnam, and the population was estimated at 7-15 individuals. It has since become extinct in Vietnam, though.
1979
1989
2009

Which invasive palm is having a devastating impact on the plants the Javan rhinoceros relies on for food?
Arenga
Within the Ujung Kulon National Park that the Javan rhinoceros resides, the rhino is threatened by the invasive Arenga palm, which is having a devastating impact on the plants the rhino relies on for food.
Bangalow
Rattan
Sago

The Javan rhinoceros’ skin is generally hairless.
True
The Javan rhinoceros’ hairless skin is a dusky, hazy grey and contains tough folds that create an armor-like plating.
False

For how much does one kilogram of rhino horn sell in Eastern Asia?
$60,000
Eastern Asian medicine views rhino horns as an important, if not essential part, of medicine. 60% of Eastern Asian doctors stock rhino horn, with Asian horns being preferred over their African counterparts. In this part of the world, one kilogram of rhino horn sells for approximately $60,000.
$600
$6,000
$600,000

How many horns does a Javan rhinoceros have?
1
The Javan rhinoceros possesses a single horn on the top of its nose at the end of its snout.
2
3
4

The Javan rhinoceros looks similar to the Indian rhinoceros but has what differences?
Smaller Body Size
The Javan rhinoceros is very similar in appearance to the closely related Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), or greater one-horned rhino.
The Javan rhino, however, is slightly smaller and has a much smaller head and looser, less apparent skin folds.
Looser, Less Apparent Skin Folds
The Javan rhinoceros is very similar in appearance to the closely related Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), or greater one-horned rhino.
The Javan rhino, however, is slightly smaller and has a much smaller head and looser, less apparent skin folds.
Larger Ears
Larger Horn

Javan rhinoceroses may overlap home ranges.
True
The range for the Javan rhinoceros extends between 3 to 20 square miles, with various groups having ranges that overlap one another.
False

The longevity of the Javan rhinoceros is currently unknown, but is estimated to be 30-40 years.
True
The longevity of the Javan rhinoceros is unknown, but it’s estimated to live an average lifespan of 30-40 years.
False

The Javan rhinoceros historically occurred in open mixed forests, grasslands, and on high mountains, but is now confined to what habitat?
Tropical Rainforest
The Javan rhinoceros formerly occurred in more open mixed forest and grassland and on high mountains. The species now resides in incredibly dense, low-lying tropical rainforests.
Savanna
Shrubland
Wetlands

Javan rhinoceroses are more adaptable feeders than other rhino species.
True
Javan rhinoceroses appear to be more adaptable feeders than other rhino species.
False

What percentage of Eastern Asian doctors stocks rhinoceros horn?
60%
Eastern Asian medicine views rhino horns as an important, if not essential part, of medicine. 60% of Eastern Asian doctors stock rhino horn, with Asian horns being preferred over their African counterparts.
10%
30%
90%

The Javan rhinoceros is the most endangered of all rhinos.
True
The Javan rhinoceros is the most endangered species of the rhinoceros family and probably the rarest large mammal in the world. It is rarely seen as there are approximately 46-67 individuals surviving, only in the Ujung Kulon National Park in west Java, Indonesia.
False

What are possible threats to the survival of the Javan rhinoceros species?
Agricultural Pressures
Although the land on which the Javan rhino lives is currently protected as Ujung Kulon National Park, there is pressure to use the land for agricultural purposes. Surrounding forests are still under pressure from human activities. Also, with so few animals, there is low genetic diversity and the likelihood of inbreeding is great. Inbreeding is known to increase the likelihood of birth defect or disease. Lastly, should an environmental catastrophe or natural disaster, such as a forest fire, volcano, earthquake, or disease affect the population, dire consequences could result.
Inbreeding
Although the land on which the Javan rhino lives is currently protected as Ujung Kulon National Park, there is pressure to use the land for agricultural purposes. Surrounding forests are still under pressure from human activities. Also, with so few animals, there is low genetic diversity and the likelihood of inbreeding is great. Inbreeding is known to increase the likelihood of birth defect or disease. Lastly, should an environmental catastrophe or natural disaster, such as a forest fire, volcano, earthquake, or disease affect the population, dire consequences could result.
Low Genetic Diversity
Although the land on which the Javan rhino lives is currently protected as Ujung Kulon National Park, there is pressure to use the land for agricultural purposes. Surrounding forests are still under pressure from human activities. Also, with so few animals, there is low genetic diversity and the likelihood of inbreeding is great. Inbreeding is known to increase the likelihood of birth defect or disease. Lastly, should an environmental catastrophe or natural disaster, such as a forest fire, volcano, earthquake, or disease affect the population, dire consequences could result.
Natural Disasters
Although the land on which the Javan rhino lives is currently protected as Ujung Kulon National Park, there is pressure to use the land for agricultural purposes. Surrounding forests are still under pressure from human activities. Also, with so few animals, there is low genetic diversity and the likelihood of inbreeding is great. Inbreeding is known to increase the likelihood of birth defect or disease. Lastly, should an environmental catastrophe or natural disaster, such as a forest fire, volcano, earthquake, or disease affect the population, dire consequences could result.

Which organization funded Rhino Protection Units (RPUs) to guard and protect the last remaining viable population of Javan rhinos from poaching?
International Rhino Foundation (IRF)
The Javan rhinoceros population appears to have stabilized, largely because it is guarded by a Rhino Protection Unit (RPU). These units were funded by the International Rhino Foundation (IRF) to keep the population safe from poaching.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
World Rhino Day (WRD)

What ultimately led to the extinction of the Javan rhinoceros in Vietnam?
Poaching
The subspecies Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus formerly occurred in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, eastern Thailand, and the area in and around the Cat Loc part (Dong Nai province) of the Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam. This population dwindled to about 7-15 individuals in 1999 before becoming extinct in 2011. The last Javan rhino in Vietnam died in 2010. It had been shot and its horn had been removed. The species was officially declared extinct in Vietnam the following year.
Food Availability
Vietnam War
Habitat Loss

Since when has the Javan population of the Javan rhinoceros been restricted to the western side of the island of Java?
1930s
Indonesia’s remote Ujung Kulon National Park on the western side of the island of Java holds the only viable population of the Javan rhinoceros. The Javan population of this species has been restricted to this area since around the 1930s.
1830s
1870s
1970s

The Javan rhinoceros’ horn is the smallest of all rhinos.
True
The Javan rhinoceros possesses a single horn on the top of its nose at the end of its snout, the smallest horn of all five extant rhinoceros species. The horns of male Javan rhinos can grow to a length of 25 centimeters (10 inches), but females have smaller, less prominent horns or no horn at all.
False

How long can a Javan rhinoceros’ horn grow?
25 cm. / 10 in.
The horns of male Javan rhinos can grow to a length of 25 centimeters (10 inches), but females have smaller, less prominent horns or no horn at all.
15 cm. / 6 in.
40 cm. / 15 in.
50 cm. / 20 in.

When did the Javan rhinoceros become extinct in Vietnam?
2011
The subspecies Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus formerly occurred in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, eastern Thailand, and the area in and around the Cat Loc part (Dong Nai province) of the Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam. This population dwindled to about 7-15 individuals in 1999 before becoming extinct in 2011.
1975
1987
1999

Female Javan rhinoceroses wander over larger areas than males.
False
The range for the Javan rhinoceros extends between 3 to 20 square miles. The home range size of females is probably no more than 500 ha, while males wander over larger areas, with likely limited dispersal distance.
True

Which Javan rhinoceros subspecies is extant?
Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus
The subspecies Rhinoceros sondaicus inermis formerly occurred in northeastern India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, but is now extinct. The subspecies Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus formerly occurred in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and eastern Thailand. Its final population lived in and around the Cat Loc part (Dong Nai province) of the Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam until it was officially declared extinct in 2011. The subspecies Rhinoceros sondaicus sondaicus formerly occurred from Thailand through Malaysia, to the islands of Java and Sumatra, Indonesia. The only remaining population occurs on the Ujung Kulon Peninsula, which forms the westernmost extremity of the island of Java. The Javan population of this subspecies has been restricted to this area since around the 1930s.
Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus
Rhinoceros sondaicus inermis

The Javan rhinoceros is generally social.
False
The Javan rhinoceros is generally fairly solitary, except when pairs form for mating and when mothers tend their young.
True

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