Mule Deer Trivia

Mule Deer

Do you think you know the mule deer? Test your knowledge of mule deer FaunaFacts with this trivia quiz!

Click on an answer choice to receive instant feedback. Red answers are incorrect, but allow you to continue guessing. Green answers are correct and will provide additional explanatory information. Sometimes more than one answer is correct!

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What physical attribute originated the mule deer’s name?
Large Ears
The mule deer is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule.
Gray-Brown Pelage
Bounding Gait
Braying Call
Increased mule deer populations can damage forest regeneration.
True
In the Douglas fir region, the mule deer browses on trees during both the dormant and growing seasons. Practices that encourage the growth of mule deer populations can therefore also encourage damage.
False
How many subspecies of mule deer are recognized?
10
Ten subspecies of the mule deer have been identified, two of which, (O. h. columbianus and O. h. sitkensis,) are classified as black-tailed deer. The black-tailed deer was at one time treated as a separate species, but is now mostly recognized as conspecific with the mule deer. Subspecies of the mule deer include the California mule deer (O. h. californicus), Cedros Island deer (O. h. cerrosensis), Columbian black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus), desert mule deer (O. h. eremicus), southern mule deer (O. h. fuliginatus), Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus), Inyo mule deer (O. h. inyoensis), peninusla mule deer (O. h. peninsulae), Tiburon Island mule deer (O. h. sheldoni), and Sitka black-tailed deer (O. h. sitkensis).
2
5
20
What is the mule deer’s diet?
Herbivorous
The mule deer is a small herbivorous ruminant with limited ability to digest highly fibrous roughage.
Omnivorous
Carnivorous
What threatens the mule deer?
Disease
Today, the most urgent threat to wild mule deer is the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Other threats include: high predator populations (including feral dogs), competition with grazing livestock, human habitat alterations, and other anthropogenic forces.
Competition with Grazing Livestock
Today, the most urgent threat to wild mule deer is the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Other threats include: high predator populations (including feral dogs), competition with grazing livestock, human habitat alterations, and other anthropogenic forces.
Human-Related Habitat Alterations
Today, the most urgent threat to wild mule deer is the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Other threats include: high predator populations (including feral dogs), competition with grazing livestock, human habitat alterations, and other anthropogenic forces.
High Predator Populations
Today, the most urgent threat to wild mule deer is the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Other threats include: high predator populations (including feral dogs), competition with grazing livestock, human habitat alterations, and other anthropogenic forces.
Mule deer require a diet consisting of highly fibrous roughage.
False
The mule deer is a small ruminant with limited ability to digest highly fibrous roughage. Based on its stomach structure and its diet of woody and herbaceous forage in approximate equal proportions, the mule deer is classified as an intermediate feeder.
True
Which of the mule deer’s senses are most keen?
Hearing
The mule deer has excellent binocular vision. Because of its large ears, the mule deer’s sense of hearing is also extremely acute. Because of their acute hearing and excellent binocular vision, mule deer specialize in detecting danger at a very long range.
Vision
The mule deer has excellent binocular vision. Because of its large ears, the mule deer’s sense of hearing is also extremely acute. Because of their acute hearing and excellent binocular vision, mule deer specialize in detecting danger at a very long range.
Taste
Smell
To what continent is the mule deer endemic?
North America
The mule deer occurs over most of North America, west of the 100th meridian from 23 degrees to 60 degrees North.
South America
Europe
Asia
What type of herbivore is the mule deer?
Intermediate Feeder Ruminant (IM)
The mule deer is a small ruminant with limited ability to digest highly fibrous roughage. Based on its stomach structure and its diet of woody and herbaceous forage in approximate equal proportions, the mule deer is classified as an intermediate feeder.
Fermenter
Concentrate Selector Ruminant (CS)
Roughage Feeder/Grazer Ruminant (GR)
When does mule deer hunting generally occur?
Fall
The mule deer is mainly used as a game animal for trophy hunting and is of tremendous interest to hunters. Populations of deer that are large enough to support hunting during two or three weeks in autumn offer countless recreational opportunities for the public.
Spring
Summer
Winter
What strategies do mule deer use against predators?
Keeping Distance
Mule deer have several distinct strategies for avoiding predators. Once danger is detected, a mule deer may choose to hide, or move into cover and cautiously outmaneuver the predator. The most common strategy is to depart while the predator is still a long way off and move several miles to another area. At an unacceptably high cost per unit time of locomotion, a mule deer may also choose to rapidly bound uphill, imposing on pursuing predators. In yet another strategy, the mule deer may bound off and then trot away, stopping frequently to gain information on the disturbance. This initial bounding, combined with release of metatarsal scent that inhibits feeding, is highly advantageous in that, by alarming others, it causes other mule deer to bound off as well, reducing the conspicuousness of the deer who bounded off first. This strategy would also trigger group formation. Finally, when the predator closes in, the deer initiates evasive maneuvers based on sudden unpredictable changes in direction and on placing obstacles between itself and the predator. This strategy, however, does not work against group-hunting predators.
Imposing
Mule deer have several distinct strategies for avoiding predators. Once danger is detected, a mule deer may choose to hide, or move into cover and cautiously outmaneuver the predator. The most common strategy is to depart while the predator is still a long way off and move several miles to another area. At an unacceptably high cost per unit time of locomotion, a mule deer may also choose to rapidly bound uphill, imposing on pursuing predators. In yet another strategy, the mule deer may bound off and then trot away, stopping frequently to gain information on the disturbance. This initial bounding, combined with release of metatarsal scent that inhibits feeding, is highly advantageous in that, by alarming others, it causes other mule deer to bound off as well, reducing the conspicuousness of the deer who bounded off first. This strategy would also trigger group formation. Finally, when the predator closes in, the deer initiates evasive maneuvers based on sudden unpredictable changes in direction and on placing obstacles between itself and the predator. This strategy, however, does not work against group-hunting predators.
Evasive Maneuvers
Mule deer have several distinct strategies for avoiding predators. Once danger is detected, a mule deer may choose to hide, or move into cover and cautiously outmaneuver the predator. The most common strategy is to depart while the predator is still a long way off and move several miles to another area. At an unacceptably high cost per unit time of locomotion, a mule deer may also choose to rapidly bound uphill, imposing on pursuing predators. In yet another strategy, the mule deer may bound off and then trot away, stopping frequently to gain information on the disturbance. This initial bounding, combined with release of metatarsal scent that inhibits feeding, is highly advantageous in that, by alarming others, it causes other mule deer to bound off as well, reducing the conspicuousness of the deer who bounded off first. This strategy would also trigger group formation. Finally, when the predator closes in, the deer initiates evasive maneuvers based on sudden unpredictable changes in direction and on placing obstacles between itself and the predator. This strategy, however, does not work against group-hunting predators.
Group Formation
Mule deer have several distinct strategies for avoiding predators. Once danger is detected, a mule deer may choose to hide, or move into cover and cautiously outmaneuver the predator. The most common strategy is to depart while the predator is still a long way off and move several miles to another area. At an unacceptably high cost per unit time of locomotion, a mule deer may also choose to rapidly bound uphill, imposing on pursuing predators. In yet another strategy, the mule deer may bound off and then trot away, stopping frequently to gain information on the disturbance. This initial bounding, combined with release of metatarsal scent that inhibits feeding, is highly advantageous in that, by alarming others, it causes other mule deer to bound off as well, reducing the conspicuousness of the deer who bounded off first. This strategy would also trigger group formation. Finally, when the predator closes in, the deer initiates evasive maneuvers based on sudden unpredictable changes in direction and on placing obstacles between itself and the predator. This strategy, however, does not work against group-hunting predators.
What initiates the annual cycle of antler growth in mule deer?
Decreased Day Length
The annual cycle of antler growth in the mule deer is initiated and controlled by changes in day length acting on several cell types of the anterior pituitary. These cell types secrete growth-stimulating hormones that act mainly on the antlers and incidentally on the testes.
Cold Temperatures
Growth-Stimulating Hormones
Lower Food Intake
When is the mule deer breeding season?
November-December
Mule deer courtship and mating occur within the group and the breeding peak occurs mainly from late November through mid-December.
January-February
July-August
April-May
Government agencies are purchasing critical areas to maintain for mule deer in order to counter which trends?
Agricultural Development
All federal, state, and provincial land and wildlife management agencies recognize the fundamental need to maintain mule deer ranges and keep them habitable. Where they occur, mule deer populations are typically managed by organizations that monitor abundance and trends in order to set species management objectives. To counter the trend of agricultural development, rangeland conversion, mining, road and highway construction, and the development of housing tracts, many states and provinces have purchased critical areas, especially winter ranges, to maintain the various habitats of the mule deer.
Rangeland Conversion
All federal, state, and provincial land and wildlife management agencies recognize the fundamental need to maintain mule deer ranges and keep them habitable. Where they occur, mule deer populations are typically managed by organizations that monitor abundance and trends in order to set species management objectives. To counter the trend of agricultural development, rangeland conversion, mining, road and highway construction, and the development of housing tracts, many states and provinces have purchased critical areas, especially winter ranges, to maintain the various habitats of the mule deer.
Mining
All federal, state, and provincial land and wildlife management agencies recognize the fundamental need to maintain mule deer ranges and keep them habitable. Where they occur, mule deer populations are typically managed by organizations that monitor abundance and trends in order to set species management objectives. To counter the trend of agricultural development, rangeland conversion, mining, road and highway construction, and the development of housing tracts, many states and provinces have purchased critical areas, especially winter ranges, to maintain the various habitats of the mule deer.
Construction
All federal, state, and provincial land and wildlife management agencies recognize the fundamental need to maintain mule deer ranges and keep them habitable. Where they occur, mule deer populations are typically managed by organizations that monitor abundance and trends in order to set species management objectives. To counter the trend of agricultural development, rangeland conversion, mining, road and highway construction, and the development of housing tracts, many states and provinces have purchased critical areas, especially winter ranges, to maintain the various habitats of the mule deer.
From how many integumentary glands do mule deer secrete specific scents and pheromones to communicate?
5
Communication among mule deer is facilitated by the sebaceous and sudoriferous secretory cells of five integumentary glands. The cells of each gland produce specific scents, or pheromones, that elicit specific reactions in conspecifics. The metatarsal gland produces an alarm pheromone, the tarsal gland aids in mutual recognition, the interdigital gland leaves a scent trail, and the function of the tail gland is unknown.
2
3
4
What color is the tip of a mule deer’s tail?
Black
The white tails of most mule deer terminate in a tuft of black hairs, or less commonly in a thin tuft of white hairs. On some mule deer, a dark dorsal line runs from the back, down the top of the tail, to the black tail tip.
White
Grey
Brown
The desert mule deer subspecies (O. h. eremicus) is a hybrid of the mule deer and which other animal?
White-Tailed Deer
The desert mule deer, also known as the burro mule deer, is sometimes referred to as O. h. crooki, but O. h. eremicus is considered the correct name. The specimen type of this subspecies is a hybrid of the mule deer and the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
Mule
Black-Tailed Deer
Horse
What is an alternative name for the mule deer?
Black-Tailed Deer
Ten subspecies of the mule deer have been identified, two of which, (O. h. columbianus and O. h. sitkensis,) are classified as black-tailed deer. The black-tailed deer was at one time treated as a separate species, but is now mostly recognized as conspecific with the mule deer.
Red Deer
White-Tailed Deer
Roe Deer
Although the mule deer is extraordinarily sensitive to moving objects, it is unable to detect motionless objects.
True
The mule deer has excellent binocular vision. While unable to detect motionless objects, it’s extraordinarily sensitive to moving objects.
False
Mule deer are social creatures that follow a dominance hierarchy.
True
The social system of mule deer consists of clans of females related by maternal descent. These clans are the facultative resource defenders. Males disperse as individuals or aggregate in groups of unrelated individuals. During winter and spring, the stability of female clans and male groups is maintained with dominance hierarchies.
False
Mule deer are becoming extinct in what regions?
Chihuahuan Desert
Most of the mule deer’s subspecies are not threatened, but the Cedros Island subspecies (O. h. cerrocensis) is considered to be Vulnerable, as of 1988. Additionally, in Mexico, some data show local extinction of some populations in the Chihuahuan desert region of Coahuila and Nuevo León Mexico, and in some populations, evidence of metapopulation dynamics for the species have been found.
Cedros Island
Most of the mule deer’s subspecies are not threatened, but the Cedros Island subspecies (O. h. cerrocensis) is considered to be Vulnerable, as of 1988. Additionally, in Mexico, some data show local extinction of some populations in the Chihuahuan desert region of Coahuila and Nuevo León Mexico, and in some populations, evidence of metapopulation dynamics for the species have been found.
Great Salt Lake Desert
Rocky Mountains
What is the most urgent threat to the mule deer?
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
Today, the most urgent threat to wild mule deer is the spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Currently, CWD is more prominent at the local or regional level. CWD has currently been diagnosed in mule deer in the Rocky Mountains region of the United States and other mid-western states.
Overhunting
Habitat Loss
High Predator Populations
Where do mule deer generally migrate?
Lower Elevations
Seasonal movements involve migrations from higher elevations in summer ranges to lower winter ranges.
Higher Elevations
The mule deer is a habitat specialist and can only be found in particular habitats.
False
The mule deer is remarkably adaptable and is well adapted to a variety of habitats.
True
What is the mule deer listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species?
Least Concern
The mule deer, as a species, is considered to be Least Concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species in light of its adaptability to a wide range of habitats, large populations, occurrence in numerous protected areas, and populations that seem to be relatively stable.
Near Threatened
Vulnerable
Endangered
Where in North America does the mule deer mostly reside?
West
In western North America, the mule deer occurs from Alaska and Western Canada through the Rocky Mountains and Western Plains States of the United States south to the Peninsula of Baja California, Cedros Island, Tiburon Island and Northwestern Mexico.
North
South
East
What is the mule deer’s mating system?
Polygynous
The mule deer is a polygynous species, having a tending-bond type breeding system.
Monogamous
Polyandrous
Polygynandrous
When do mule deer give birth?
Summer
The peak birth period is estimated to be from June 16th to July 8th, though the time of birth will vary according to the environment.
Spring
Fall
Winter
Governments have had major success with acquiring several ranges to maintain for mule deer.
False
All federal, state, and provincial land and wildlife management agencies recognize the fundamental need to maintain mule deer ranges and keep them habitable. Where they occur, mule deer populations are typically managed by organizations that monitor abundance and trends in order to set species management objectives. To counter the trend of agricultural development, rangeland conversion, mining, road and highway construction, and the development of housing tracts, many states and provinces have purchased critical areas, especially winter ranges, to maintain the various habitats of the mule deer. Due to political opposition to government acquisition of privately owned lands, plus a scarcity of funds for this purpose, only a small fraction of mule deer ranges has been acquired by the government.
True
Mule deer cause economic damage to commercial timber by feeding on what type of trees?
Douglas Fir
Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine are of major economic importance for commercial timber, however, these trees are browsed heavily by mule deer.
Ponderosa Pine
Douglas fir and Ponderosa pine are of major economic importance for commercial timber, however, these trees are browsed heavily by mule deer.
Mountain Mahogany
Quaking Aspen
All ages and sexes of mule deer use urine as a communicative pheromone.
True
Urine has a pheromone function at all ages and for both sexes. It is deposited on tufts of hair surrounding the tarsal glands. In fawns, it functions as a distress signal, while in adults, it functions as a threat signal.
False
Mule deer tend to confine their daily movements to discrete home ranges.
True
Individuals of mule deer tend to confine their daily movements to discrete home ranges.
False
Mule deer exhibit sexual dimorphism.
True, Males are Larger
Growth in mule deer during the first year is roughly parallel in males and females, but afterward, males, in general, exceed females in carcass weight, chest girth, neck circumference, body length, head length, cranial breadth, shoulder height, hindfoot length, and hoof length.
True, Females are Larger
False
How do males fit in the mule deer social system?
Disperse as Individuals
Males disperse as individuals or aggregate in groups of unrelated individuals.
Form Unrelated Groups
Males disperse as individuals or aggregate in groups of unrelated individuals.
Form Related Clans
In adult male mule deer, food intake drops abruptly with the onset of rut.
True
The estimated rate of food intake is about 22 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. In adult males, food intake drops abruptly with the onset of rut.
False
Mule deer iconically possess a dark V-shaped mark on what part of the body?
Forehead
Mule deer iconically possess a dark V-shaped mark extending from a point between the eyes upward and laterally. This mark is more conspicuous in males.
Tail
Chest
Back
When are mule deer fully weaned?
4 Months
Weaning begins at about five weeks of age and usually is completed at age 16 weeks.
1 Month
1 Year
6 Months
A mule deer can detect danger from what distance?
600 Meters (656 Yards)
The mule deer has excellent binocular vision. Males can quickly detect and visually track another animal from as far as 600 meters away.
16 Meters (17 Yards)
160 Meters (175 Yards)
1,600 Meters (1,750 Yards)
Mule deer hunting has a positive economic influence and generates revenue for the economy.
True
The mule deer is mainly used as a game animal for trophy hunting and is of tremendous interest to hunters. Populations of deer that are large enough to support hunting during two or three weeks in autumn offer countless recreational opportunities for the public. This desire to hunt generates revenue for the economy.
False
False
False
A mule deer’s markings can vary considerably throughout its life.
False
All mule deer markings vary considerably among the species, but remain constant throughout the life of an individual.
True
Which are predators of the mule deer?
Bobcats
Common predators of mule deer include pumas, coyotes, bobcats, golden eagles, feral dogs, and black bears.
Coyotes
Common predators of mule deer include pumas, coyotes, bobcats, golden eagles, feral dogs, and black bears.
Bears
Common predators of mule deer include pumas, coyotes, bobcats, golden eagles, feral dogs, and black bears.
Eagles
Common predators of mule deer include pumas, coyotes, bobcats, golden eagles, feral dogs, and black bears.
What is a female mule deer called?
Doe
Female mule deer are called does or hinds.
Hind
Female mule deer are called does or hinds.
Jenny
Hinny
In what countries does the mule deer reside?
United States of America
Mule deer have been introduced in Argentina and are natively found in Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America.
Canada
Mule deer have been introduced in Argentina and are natively found in Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America.
Mexico
Mule deer have been introduced in Argentina and are natively found in Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America.
Guatemala
What type of herbivore is the mule deer?
Leaves
Mule deer frequently browse leaves and twigs of trees and shrubs. Green leaves are very succulent and, except for epidermal tissue and structural ribs, consist largely of easily digestible cell contents. Dead and weathered leaves have little protein and high cell-wall values. As a result, they are of very low digestibility. Mule deer also eat acorns, legume seeds, and fleshy fruits, including berries and drupes that have moderate cell-wall levels and are easily digested.
Twigs
Mule deer frequently browse leaves and twigs of trees and shrubs. Green leaves are very succulent and, except for epidermal tissue and structural ribs, consist largely of easily digestible cell contents. Dead and weathered leaves have little protein and high cell-wall values. As a result, they are of very low digestibility. Mule deer also eat acorns, legume seeds, and fleshy fruits, including berries and drupes that have moderate cell-wall levels and are easily digested.
Acorns
Mule deer frequently browse leaves and twigs of trees and shrubs. Green leaves are very succulent and, except for epidermal tissue and structural ribs, consist largely of easily digestible cell contents. Dead and weathered leaves have little protein and high cell-wall values. As a result, they are of very low digestibility. Mule deer also eat acorns, legume seeds, and fleshy fruits, including berries and drupes that have moderate cell-wall levels and are easily digested.
Fruit
Mule deer frequently browse leaves and twigs of trees and shrubs. Green leaves are very succulent and, except for epidermal tissue and structural ribs, consist largely of easily digestible cell contents. Dead and weathered leaves have little protein and high cell-wall values. As a result, they are of very low digestibility. Mule deer also eat acorns, legume seeds, and fleshy fruits, including berries and drupes that have moderate cell-wall levels and are easily digested.
The mule deer is a target for various viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases.
True
The mule deer is a target for various viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases. For example, heavy amounts of gastrointestinal nematodes may cause death in mule deer. This parasitic disease is usually indicative of such predisposing factors as high mule deer density and malnutrition. Infection by the parasitic meningeal worm can cause fatal neurologic disease in mule deer. Livestock may transmit viral diseases to mule deer as seen in foot-and-mouth disease. This infection is characterized by blisters in the mouth, above the hooves, and between the digits.
False
Mule deer are excellent swimmers.
True
Mule deer are excellent swimmers, but water is rarely used as a means of escaping predators.
False
What is the Cedros Island mule deer subspecies (O. h. cerrocensis) listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species?
Vulnerable
Although the entirety of the mule deer species is considered Least Concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, there are subspecies that are in danger of becoming extinct. Most of the mule deer’s subspecies are not threatened, but the Cedros Island subspecies (O. h. cerrocensis) is considered to be Vulnerable, as of 1988.
Least Concern
Near Threatened
Endangered
What is contributing to the survival of the mule deer species?
Habitat Adaptability
The mule deer, as a species, is considered to be Least Concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species in light of its adaptability to a wide range of habitats, large populations, occurrence in numerous protected areas, and populations that seem to be relatively stable.
Large, Stable Populations
The mule deer, as a species, is considered to be Least Concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species in light of its adaptability to a wide range of habitats, large populations, occurrence in numerous protected areas, and populations that seem to be relatively stable.
Protected Areas
The mule deer, as a species, is considered to be Least Concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species in light of its adaptability to a wide range of habitats, large populations, occurrence in numerous protected areas, and populations that seem to be relatively stable.
Lack of Predators
The mule deer has a fixed metabolic rate throughout the seasons.
False
Because nutritious forage is in poor supply for much of the year, the mule deer has an annual cycle of metabolic rates.
True
What is the lifespan of a mule deer?
22 Years
The mule deer has an average lifespan of 22 years in captivity.
12 Years
32 Years
42 Years
In what habitats does the mule deer reside?
Forest
The mule deer is remarkably adaptable and is well adapted to a variety of habitats. The mule deer can be found in temperate forests, savannas, shrublands, scrub habitats, open ranges, grasslands, fields, wetlands, mountainous areas, deserts, semideserts, intertidal shorelines, artificial terrestrial and aquatic habitats, and even habitats with introduced vegetation.
Grassland
The mule deer is remarkably adaptable and is well adapted to a variety of habitats. The mule deer can be found in temperate forests, savannas, shrublands, scrub habitats, open ranges, grasslands, fields, wetlands, mountainous areas, deserts, semideserts, intertidal shorelines, artificial terrestrial and aquatic habitats, and even habitats with introduced vegetation.
Wetlands
The mule deer is remarkably adaptable and is well adapted to a variety of habitats. The mule deer can be found in temperate forests, savannas, shrublands, scrub habitats, open ranges, grasslands, fields, wetlands, mountainous areas, deserts, semideserts, intertidal shorelines, artificial terrestrial and aquatic habitats, and even habitats with introduced vegetation.
Desert
The mule deer can be found in temperate forests, savannas, shrublands, scrub habitats, open ranges, grasslands, fields, wetlands, mountainous areas, deserts, semideserts, intertidal shorelines, artificial terrestrial and aquatic habitats, and even habitats with introduced vegetation.
What is a male mule deer called?
Buck
Male mule deer are called bucks or stags.
Stag
Male mule deer are called bucks or stags.
Jack
Bull
What determines dominance in mule deer?
Large Body Size
Dominance is largely a function of size, with the largest males, which possess the largest antlers, performing most of the copulations.
Large Antlers
Dominance is largely a function of size, with the largest males, which possess the largest antlers, performing most of the copulations.
Dark Pelage
Large Ears
How do females fit in the mule deer social system?
Form Related Clans
The social system of mule deer consists of clans of females related by maternal descent. These clans are the facultative resource defenders.
Disperse as Individuals
Form Unrelated Groups
Regardless of sex, mule deer are generally the same size during their first year.
True
Growth in mule deer during the first year is roughly parallel in males and females.
False
At birth, female mule deer are heavier than males.
False
At birth, mule deer have a mass from two to five kilograms, affected by litter size and sex, with males being heavier than females.
True
What is the population trend of the mule deer?
Stable
The mule deer, as a species, is considered to be Least Concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species in light of its adaptability to a wide range of habitats, large populations, occurrence in numerous protected areas, and populations that seem to be relatively stable.
Increasing
Decreasing
Unknown
What causes mule deer to migrate?
Decreased Temperatures
Seasonal movements involving migrations from higher elevations in summer ranges to lower winter ranges are associated, in part, with decreasing temperatures, severe snowstorms, and snow depths that reduce mobility and food supply. Deep snows ultimately limit useable range to a fraction of the total. Mule deer in the arid southwest may migrate in response to rainfall patterns.
Snow
Seasonal movements involving migrations from higher elevations in summer ranges to lower winter ranges are associated, in part, with decreasing temperatures, severe snowstorms, and snow depths that reduce mobility and food supply. Deep snows ultimately limit useable range to a fraction of the total. Mule deer in the arid southwest may migrate in response to rainfall patterns.
Rain
Seasonal movements are associated, in part, with decreasing temperatures, severe snowstorms, and snow depths that reduce mobility and food supply. Deep snows ultimately limit useable range to a fraction of the total. Mule deer in the arid southwest may migrate in response to rainfall patterns.
Breeding Season
How long is a mule deer’s gestation?
7 Months
The average gestation length for a mule deer is 204 days.
1 Month
3 Months
1 Year
What is the usual litter size of the mule deer?
1-2
The common litter size of the mule deer is two, with mothers in their first or second breeding year most frequently producing singletons.
2-3
3-4
4-5
What threatens the Cedros Island mule deer subspecies (O. h. cerrocensis)?
Low Population Densities
The Cedros Island subspecies (O. h. cerrocensis) is in danger of becoming extinct because its densities are very low on the island where it occurs and predation by feral dogs and poaching are high. Other subspecies that live on islands are also considered endangered.
Feral Dogs
The Cedros Island subspecies (O. h. cerrocensis) is in danger of becoming extinct because its densities are very low on the island where it occurs and predation by feral dogs and poaching are high. Other subspecies that live on islands are also considered endangered.
Poaching
The Cedros Island subspecies (O. h. cerrocensis) is in danger of becoming extinct because its densities are very low on the island where it occurs and predation by feral dogs and poaching are high. Other subspecies that live on islands are also considered endangered.
Habitat Loss
Mule deer are aggressive year-round.
False
The frequency of aggressive behavior between the sexes remains low year round.
True

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