The butterfly viper is endemic to central and western Africa and has a more restricted range than the Gaboon viper.
The butterfly viper is endemic to central and western Africa. In West Africa, they are found from Guinea to Ghana. In central Africa, they inhabit the Central African Republic, southern Sudan, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, DR Congo, Angola, Rwanda, Uganda, and western Kenya. Reports as far as southern Zaire have also been documented.
The type locality is listed only as interior parts of Africa.
Its range is more restricted than the Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica).