Silverstone’s Poison Frog Trivia

Silverstone's Poison Frog

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Which sex of Silverstone’s poison frog makes trilling calls?
Males
When they reach sexual maturity, males begin making trilling calls.
Female
Both, Male & Female
None

Where is further Silverstone’s poison frog research needed?
Distribution
Further research is needed into the distribution, population status, ecology, and threats affecting the Silverstone’s poison frog, especially with regards to the impact of illegal trade. The population status and trends of this species are not fully known, as there is insufficient data for the species. There is also a need for population monitoring of the status of this species given the threats of habitat loss and harvesting.
Population Status
Further research is needed into the distribution, population status, ecology, and threats affecting the Silverstone’s poison frog, especially with regards to the impact of illegal trade. The population status and trends of this species are not fully known, as there is insufficient data for the species. There is also a need for population monitoring of the status of this species given the threats of habitat loss and harvesting.
Ecology
Further research is needed into the distribution, population status, ecology, and threats affecting the Silverstone’s poison frog, especially with regards to the impact of illegal trade. The population status and trends of this species are not fully known, as there is insufficient data for the species. There is also a need for population monitoring of the status of this species given the threats of habitat loss and harvesting.
Threats
Further research is needed into the distribution, population status, ecology, and threats affecting the Silverstone’s poison frog, especially with regards to the impact of illegal trade. The population status and trends of this species are not fully known, as there is insufficient data for the species. There is also a need for population monitoring of the status of this species given the threats of habitat loss and harvesting.

When does a Silverstone’s poison frog acquire its adult coloration?
1 Year
The Silverstone’s poison frog’s pattern is developed within a month or so, and expansion of the orange-reddish areas occurs after twelve months.
1 Day
1 Week
1 Month

What threatens the Silverstone’s poison frog?
Agriculture
The Silverstone’s poison frog is threatened by agriculture, habitat destruction, and illegal smuggling for the international pet trade.
Habitat Destruction
The Silverstone’s poison frog is threatened by agriculture, habitat destruction, and illegal smuggling for the international pet trade.
International Pet Trade
The Silverstone’s poison frog is threatened by agriculture, habitat destruction, and illegal smuggling for the international pet trade.
Invasive Species

What size is the Silverstone’s poison frog?
38.3-42.8 mm. / 1.5-1.7 in.
Male adult Silverstone’s poison frogs are large and have a maximum snout-vent length of 38.3 millimeters (1.5 inches). Females have a maximum snout-vent length of 42.8 millimeters (1.7 inches).
12.7-17.78 mm. / 0.5-0.7 in.
63.5-68.58 mm. / 2.5-2.7 in.
88.9-93.98 mm. / 3.5-3.7 in.

What is the Silverstone’s poison frog evaluated on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species?
Endangered
The Silverstone’s poison frog is listed as Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species given that its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 2,874 square kilometers, it is considered to occur in two threat-defined locations (based on the currently known disjunct geographical localities and trade pressure exerted in Cordillera Azul) and there is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals due to illegal harvesting, as well as a decline in the extent and quality of habitat.
Critically Endangered
Extinct in the Wild
Vulnerable

Where do Silverstone’s poison frogs lay their eggs?
Under Leaves
The female lays her eggs terrestrially in a closely packed single layer underneath leaves and leaf-litter.
In Deep Water
In Shallow Water
On Tree Bark

How do Silverstone’s poison frogs differ from other Dedrobatidae frogs?
Larger
The Silverstone’s poison frog can be distinguished from other members of the Dendrobatidae family by its large size and the lack of stripes in its orange-and-black or red-and-black coloration. Although they superficially resemble the black-legged poison dart frog (Phyllobates bicolor), they can be readily differentiated by observing the coarsely granular skin on the lower back that is smooth in P. bicolor , more prominent foot tubercles, and by various other differences.
Lack of Stripes
The Silverstone’s poison frog can be distinguished from other members of the Dendrobatidae family by its large size and the lack of stripes in its orange-and-black or red-and-black coloration. Although they superficially resemble the black-legged poison dart frog (Phyllobates bicolor), they can be readily differentiated by observing the coarsely granular skin on the lower back that is smooth in P. bicolor , more prominent foot tubercles, and by various other differences.
Granular Skin
The Silverstone’s poison frog can be distinguished from other members of the Dendrobatidae family by its large size and the lack of stripes in its orange-and-black or red-and-black coloration. Although they superficially resemble the black-legged poison dart frog (Phyllobates bicolor), they can be readily differentiated by observing the coarsely granular skin on the lower back that is smooth in P. bicolor , more prominent foot tubercles, and by various other differences.
Less Prominent Foot Tubercles

The Silverstone’s poison frog is a habitat ___.
Specialist
The Silverstone’s poison frog is a habitat specialist.
Generalist

What is the Silverstone’s poison frog’s parental care?
Paternal
The Silverstone’s poison frog has paternal parental investment.
Maternal
Both, Maternal & Paternal
None

What water does the Silverstone’s poison frog inhabit?
Fresh
The Silverstone’s poison frog is a freshwater species.
Salt

To what continent is the Silverstone’s poison frog endemic?
South America
The Silverstone’s poison frog is endemic to South America.
North America
Asia
Africa

When was the Silverstone’s poison frog described?
1979
The Silverstone’s poison frog was officially described in 1979.
1779
1679
1879

What colors are Silverstone’s poison frogs?
Red
The head, body, and forelimbs of an adult Silverstone’s poison frog is orange or red, sometimes with heavy black spots, marbling, or mottling, especially towards the rear.
Orange
The head, body, and forelimbs of an adult Silverstone’s poison frog is orange or red, sometimes with heavy black spots, marbling, or mottling, especially towards the rear.
Blue
Green

Which of the Silverstone’s poison frog’s digit discs are wider?
Toes
The toe discs tend to be slightly wider than the finger discs.
Fingers

The Silverstone’s poison frog’s toxins are fatal to predators.
False
The poison is not fatal and predators seem to recover fully.
True

The Silverstone’s poison frog has teeth.
True
Teeth are present on the Silverstone’s poison frog’s maxillary arch.
False

The Silverstone’s poison frog’s skin is mostly what texture?
Coarse, Granular
The skin of the Silverstone’s poison frog’s lower body and hind limbs is coarsely granular, especially on the back. It gradually smooths out in the skin atop the head, and on the forelimbs and ventral surfaces.
Smooth
Hard, Scaled
Soft, Furry

The Silverstone’s poison frog’s vocal sac is visible externally.
False
The Silverstone’s poison frog’s small, shallow, subgular vocal sac, located in the throat, is rarely indicated externally by a weak longitudinal crease (not a definite fold) on each side of throat.
True

Why do Silverstone’s poison frogs make trilling calls?
Attract Mates
The Silverstone’s poison frog makes mating trills to attract females.
Attract Prey
Communicate with Young
Deter Predators

What is the Silverstone’s poison frog population?
Unknown
The population status and trends of this species are not fully known, as there is insufficient data for the species. Current subpopulations appear to be a small fraction of what they once were, although there is not enough data to determine population size.
2,000
200
20,000

There is sexual dimorphism in the Silverstone’s poison frog’s body size.
True, females are larger.
The Silverstone’s poison frog has little external sexual dimorphism except in size. Females are typically slightly larger than males.
True, males are larger.
False.

What is the Silverstone’s poison frog’s population trend?
Decreasing
Due to harvesting of the Silverstone’s poison frog for the pet trade, the population is thought to be decreasing.
Increasing
Unknown
Stable

What color are Silverstone’s poison frog tadpoles?
Gray
Silverstone’s poison frog tadpoles are grayish or blackish-brown, with a few smatterings of darker spotting.
Black
Silverstone’s poison frog tadpoles are grayish or blackish-brown, with a few smatterings of darker spotting.
Brown
Silverstone’s poison frog tadpoles are grayish or blackish-brown, with a few smatterings of darker spotting.
White

How many eggs does a female Silverstone’s poison frog lay?
30
Clutches are small, usually made up of about 30 eggs, and have been observed on leaves.
3
300
3,000

There have been observations of Silverstone’s poison frog courtship.
False
There have been no observations or records of Silverstone’s poison frog courtship.
True

The Silverstone’s poison frog is a migrant.
False
The Silverstone’s poison frog is not classified as a migrant on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.
True

What color are the Silverstone’s poison frog’s legs mostly?
Black
The hind limbs are largely or partially black and may have spots of body color on the thighs or with bright body color extending dorsally over the thighs and onto the shanks.
Red
Blue
Orange

What habitats does the Silverstone’s poison frog inhabit?
Forest
The Silverstone’s poison frog’s natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and wetlands.
Wetlands
The Silverstone’s poison frog’s natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and wetlands.
Marine Neritic
Grassland

To what country is the Silverstone’s poison frog endemic?
Peru
The Silverstone’s poison frog is endemic to the Cordillera Azul, a small mountain range that flanks the eastern side of the Andes, Huánuco Region in Peru.
Ecuador
Bolivia
Colombia

When was the Silverstone’s poison frog discovered?
1940s
The Silverstone’s poison frog was discovered in the 1940’s during road construction across the Cordillera Azul on the Amazonian flank of the Peruvian Andes.
1840s
1740s
1640s

What toxins are found in the Silverstone’s poison frog’s skin secretions?
Alkaloids
To defend against predators, the Silverstone’s poison frog’s piperidine skin secretions contain small amounts of alkaloids, mainly of the pumiliotoxin-A class, a toxin found in the skin of poison frogs. However, the secretions lack the more potent batrachotoxin alkaloids of Phyllobates.
Pumiliotoxin-A
To defend against predators, the Silverstone’s poison frog’s piperidine skin secretions contain small amounts of alkaloids, mainly of the pumiliotoxin-A class, a toxin found in the skin of poison frogs. However, the secretions lack the more potent batrachotoxin alkaloids of Phyllobates.
Batrachotoxin
Botulinum-A

What is the Silverstone’s poison frog’s current scientific name?
Ameerega silverstonei
Prior to its official description as Ameerega silverstonei, this species was known to many people but under incorrect names, such as Phyllobates bicolor or Epipedobates silverstonei.
Epipedobates silverstonei
Phyllobates bicolor
Silverstoneia erasmios

Which sex of Silverstone’s poison frog has a vocal sac in the throat?
Male
Only adult males possess the small, shallow, subgular vocal sac in the throat.
Female
Both, Male & Female
None

What color are the Silverstone’s poison frog’s eyes?
Black & Bronze
The upper third of the Silverstone’s poison frog’s iris is pale bronze with some black suffusion, turning black on the lower two-thirds, with possible minute bronze flecking.
Silver & Bronze
Black & Silver
Silver

The Silverstone’s poison frog has webbing between the digits.
False
There is no webbing between the digits of either the hands or feet.
True

Silverstone’s poison frogs are territorial.
True
Silverstone’s poison frog males are territorial during the breeding season.
False

Silverstone’s poison frogs are wary and usually quick to hide.
True
Silverstone’s poison frogs are wary and usually quick to hide, and seem to have some preference for edge situations.
False

The Silverstone’s poison frog’s eardrum is greater than what percentage of the eye?
50%
The tympanum is seen by dissection to be circular or slightly vertically elliptical with an area greater than 50% of the eye.
25%
75%
100%

Silverstone’s poison frogs call ___ in heavy rainfall.
Less
During heavy rainfall, no adult frogs call.
More

What features does a Silverstone’s poison frog tadpole have?
Keratin Beak
Silverstone’s poison frog tadpoles have a keratinized beak that does not appear of considerable size. The mouth has delicately toothed edges, and the lower beak has a broad V-shape. They have a single row of pointed papillae.
Toothed Edges
Silverstone’s poison frog tadpoles have a keratinized beak that does not appear of considerable size. The mouth has delicately toothed edges, and the lower beak has a broad V-shape. They have a single row of pointed papillae.
Pointed Papillae
Silverstone’s poison frog tadpoles have a keratinized beak that does not appear of considerable size. The mouth has delicately toothed edges, and the lower beak has a broad V-shape. They have a single row of pointed papillae.
Webbed Feet

Female Silverstone’s poison frogs only lay eggs once a year.
False
It is assumed that female Silverstone’s poison frogs lay eggs more than once a year, and possibly throughout the entire year due to the constantly wet climate in which they live.
True

How do male Silverstone’s poison frogs care for their young?
Guard Eggs
The male Silverstone’s poison nurse frog guards the eggs until they hatch, then carries the hatched larvae on his back to a suitable terrestrial body of water, such as an ephemeral pool, stream, puddle, or water-filled crevice where the tadpoles develop until undergoing metamorphosis. Although clutches have been found on dead leaves on the forest floor with male frogs in attendance, males have not been observed to defend eggs when clutches were approached.
Carry Larvae
The male Silverstone’s poison nurse frog guards the eggs until they hatch, then carries the hatched larvae on his back to a suitable terrestrial body of water, such as an ephemeral pool, stream, puddle, or water-filled crevice where the tadpoles develop until undergoing metamorphosis. Although clutches have been found on dead leaves on the forest floor with male frogs in attendance, males have not been observed to defend eggs when clutches were approached.
Introduce Larvae to Water
The male Silverstone’s poison nurse frog guards the eggs until they hatch, then carries the hatched larvae on his back to a suitable terrestrial body of water, such as an ephemeral pool, stream, puddle, or water-filled crevice where the tadpoles develop until undergoing metamorphosis. Although clutches have been found on dead leaves on the forest floor with male frogs in attendance, males have not been observed to defend eggs when clutches were approached.
Fight Predators

What once protected the Silverstone’s poison frog’s habitat?
Drug Crops
In the past, the habitat area where the Silverstone’s poison frog occurs had been somewhat protected by the presence of terrorist groups (accepting drug crops used in drug trafficking). More recently, coca eradication campaigns and alternative development programs have diminished the presence of drug crops in the region.
Terrorist Groups
In the past, the habitat area where the Silverstone’s poison frog occurs had been somewhat protected by the presence of terrorist groups (accepting drug crops used in drug trafficking). More recently, coca eradication campaigns and alternative development programs have diminished the presence of drug crops in the region.
Coca Eradication Campaigns
Alternate Development Programs

The Silverstone’s poison frog breeds throughout the year.
True
The Silverstone’s poison frog probably breeds throughout the year.
False

What is the Silverstone’s poison frog’s rhythm?
Diurnal
The Silverstone’s poison frog is a diurnal species.
Cathemeral
Nocturnal
Crepuscular

Which of the Silverstone’s poison frog’s toes is the longest?
4
The relative lengths of the appressed toes is 4>3>5>2>1, each terminating in a slightly expanded disc.
3
2
5

The Silverstone’s poison frog’s head is as wide as its body.
True
The head is generally as wide as the body, except gravid females tend to be more rotund. When described, head width averaged 99 percent of the greatest body width in 12 males (range 87-115%) and 88 percent in six females (78-118%).
False

There is interpopulational variation in the color pattern of the Silverstone’s poison frog.
True
There is interpopulational variation in the color pattern of the Silverstone’s poison frog, and perhaps also in the ontogenetic development of the pattern. Geographic variation is likely to be extensive if the species proves to occupy a large range in the montane forest of Cordillera Azul.
False

The Silverstone’s poison frog is distasteful to snakes.
True
The Silverstone’s poison frog is known to be distasteful to snakes.
False

What color is the Silverstone’s poison frog’s flesh?
Pinkish White
The flesh of freshly skinned specimens of Silverstone’s poison frog is pinkish white, more like the usual condition in Colostethus than the gray or blackish-colored flesh of most Dendrobates and Phyllobates.
Grayish White
Brown
Black

Which of the Silverstone’s poison frogs fingers is the longest?
3
The relative length of the appressed fingers is 3>4≥1≥2, each terminating in slightly expanded disc.
4
1
2

How much did you know about the Silverstone’s poison frog? Share your results in the comments!

Learn More About the Silverstone’s Poison Frog

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