Livingstone’s Flying Fox Trivia

Livingstone's Flying Fox

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The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to what country?
Comoros
The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa, where it is only found on the islands of Anjouan, also called Nzwani, and Mohéli, also called Mwali.
Mayotte
Madagascar
Seychelles
What are Livingstone’s flying foxes considered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species?
Critically Endangered
The Livingstone’s flying fox is listed as Critically Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species because of a serious population decline.
Vulnerable
Endangered
Extinct in the Wild
What is the Livingstone’s flying fox’s diet?
Herbivorous
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit.
Carnivorous
Omnivorous
What are groups of Livingstone’s flying foxes called?
Harem
Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.
Cloud
Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.
Colony
Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.
Cauldron
Livingstone’s flying foxes form small groups, called harems or colonies, in which they roost and forage. Groups of bats are also called cauldrons or clouds.
During the past 20 years, the Comoros, where the Livingstone’s flying fox inhabits, has lost how much of its remaining forests?
75%
Over the last few decades, the Comoros have undergone a sustained, rapid deforestation, resulting in the loss of nearly all its native forests. Data quality on rates of habitat loss is poor, but best estimates are that during the past 20 years alone, the country has lost 75% of its remaining forests, the fastest rate of any country in the world.
20%
50%
95%
The generation length of the Livingstone’s flying fox is unknown, but is estimated to be 8.1 years.
True
Generation length for the wild population of the Livingstone’s flying fox is unknown, but several demographic parameters can be derived from the studbook for captive bats of this species. Females do not reproduce during the first few years of life in captivity. The minimum dam age at first reproduction has been 3.4 years, whereas the average dam age at first reproduction is 5.9 years, and the average age of females giving birth is elevated (of all dams born in captivity that have since died or are 10 years of age, mean age when giving birth = 8.1 years). Thus, based on studbook data, this last figure of 8.1 years represents our best estimate of the generation length of the captive population. This estimate may be conservative as most (75%) of these females are still alive and at least some presumably will reproduce again at a later age
False
The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to what continent?
Africa
The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa.
Asia
Australia
Europe
Human pressures on the Livingstone’s flying fox’s native forests are expected to continue, as the growth rate of the human population remains high, with an annual increase of how much?
2.5%
Human pressures on native forests are expected to continue, as the growth rate of the human population remains high, with an annual increase of 2.5%.
12.5%
25%
52%
How do Livingstone’s flying foxes positively affect their native ecosystem?
Seed Dispersal
Members of the genus Pteropus are important in the dispersal of seeds in the forests they inhabit. They are often seen as keystone species because they maintain forest regeneration patterns. As such, Livingstone’s flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species and sometimes pollinate plants.
Forest Regeneration
Members of the genus Pteropus are important in the dispersal of seeds in the forests they inhabit. They are often seen as keystone species because they maintain forest regeneration patterns. As such, Livingstone’s flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species and sometimes pollinate plants.
Plant Pollination
Members of the genus Pteropus are important in the dispersal of seeds in the forests they inhabit. They are often seen as keystone species because they maintain forest regeneration patterns. As such, Livingstone’s flying foxes are important members of their native ecosystems, helping to disperse fruiting tree species and sometimes pollinate plants.
Disease Prevention
When is the Livingstone’s flying fox’s breeding season?
January-June
The breeding season for the Livingstone’s flying fox is from January through June.
July-December
What types of communication do Livingstone’s flying foxes most rely on?
Auditory
Livingstone’s flying foxes often use vocalizations to communicate. Like most mammals, chemoreception is important in communicating sexual receptiveness.
Chemical
Livingstone’s flying foxes often use vocalizations to communicate. Like most mammals, chemoreception is important in communicating sexual receptiveness.
Tactile
Visual
Why do Livingstone’s flying foxes roost near rivers and other humid environments?
Thermal Sensitivity
Livingstone’s flying fox roosts are often associated with rivers and other humid environments, a factor which may be related to their thermal sensitivity.
Predator Aversion
Food Availability
Water Requirements
Livingstone’s flying foxes are one of the most critically endangered bat species.
True
Livingstone’s flying foxes are one of the most critically endangered bat species.
False
When was a captive-breeding program initiated for the Livingstone’s flying fox?
1992
There is an active captive-breeding program underway for the Livingstone’s flying fox initiated by Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in 1992.
1929
2002
2019
How many Livingstone’s flying foxes are estimated to remain?
400-1,300
Livingstone’s flying foxes are one of the most critically endangered bat species, with an estimated population size of 400-1,300 individuals.
100-300
3,000-4,000
10,000-14,000
What is the mating system of the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Polygynous
Livingstone’s flying foxes are polygynous as males attempt to mate with as many females as they can. Females will, however, mate with more than one male throughout their lifetimes.
Monogamous
Polyandrous
Ploygynandrous
Livingstone’s flying foxes are blind.
False
Despite what some may think, the Livingstone’s flying fox is not blind and actually has good vision.
True
Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide, rather than fly directly.
True
Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide, rather than fly directly.
False
The Livingstone’s flying fox’s small population is found within a restricted range solely on how many small, adjacent islands?
2
The Livingstone’s flying fox is endemic to the Union of the Comoros island chain, just off the coast of Africa, where it is only found on two islands: Anjouan, also called Nzwani, and Mohéli, also called Mwali.
3
4
5
What kind of legal protection does the Livingstone’s flying fox receive within the Union of the Comoros?
Highest Level
The Livingstone’s flying fox receives the highest level of legal protection available within the Union of the Comoros. It is listed as an “integrally-protected species”, which prohibits the capture or detention of individuals without a permit. This law also expressly prohibits the killing of flying fox individuals; transport, purchase, sale, export or re-export of live or dead flying fox individuals or body parts; all disruption during the period of reproduction and raising of young; and the destruction of roosts.
Lowest Level
None
What threatens the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Habitat Loss
The species is suspected to suffer from catastrophic habitat decline caused by the cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use. This has resulted in extensive declines in the species’ area of occupancy, the extent of its occurrence, and the quality of its habitat. The remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing. Lastly, the geographic range is small.
Habitat Defragmentation
The species is suspected to suffer from catastrophic habitat decline caused by the cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use. This has resulted in extensive declines in the species’ area of occupancy, the extent of its occurrence, and the quality of its habitat. The remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing. Lastly, the geographic range is small.
Small Range
The species is suspected to suffer from catastrophic habitat decline caused by the cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use. This has resulted in extensive declines in the species’ area of occupancy, the extent of its occurrence, and the quality of its habitat. The remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing. Lastly, the geographic range is small.
High Predator Populations
The loss of native forests has resulted in impermanence or complete drying of nearly all rivers in the Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat.
True
The loss of native forests has resulted in impermanence or complete drying of nearly all rivers on Anjouan and many on Mohéli.
False
Global climate change could negatively affect the availability of suitable roosting habitat for the Livingstone’s flying fox.
True
The mean surface temperature of the Comoros is thought to have increased about 1° Celsius since 1900 and is expected to increase by 1-3° Celsius more by 2100 due to global climate change. It is unclear whether or how such changes will affect the Livingstone’s flying fox, but since thermal characteristics are important components of roost suitability for this and other Pteropus species, predicted temperature increases could negatively affect the availability of suitable roosting habitat.
False
Livingstone’s flying foxes are migratory.
False
There is no available information on the home range of Livingstone’s flying foxes, but it is known that they do not migrate.
True
What sense do Livingstone’s flying foxes rely on to determine if fruit is ripe enough to eat?
Smell
In general, Pteropus species use olfaction to find fruiting trees and determine if fruit is ripe enough to eat.
Sight
Hearing
Taste
What physical features distinguishes the Livingstone’s flying fox from most other pteropodids?
Black & Tawny Fur
The Livingstone’s flying fox has three features that distinguishes it from most other pteropodids, its black and tawny fur, rounded ears, and red-orange eyes.
Rounded Ears
The Livingstone’s flying fox has three features that distinguishes it from most other pteropodids, its black and tawny fur, rounded ears, and red-orange eyes.
Red-Orange Eyes
The Livingstone’s flying fox has three features that distinguishes it from most other pteropodids, its black and tawny fur, rounded ears, and red-orange eyes.
Black, Hairless Wings
With continuing habitat change, where has the Livingstone’s flying fox retreated?
Higher Elevations
With continuing habitat change, the Livingstone’s flying fox has retreated to higher elevations.
Lower Elevations
There are numerous conservation action plans and programs in place to help preserve the Livingstone’s flying fox.
True
The Conservation Action Plan for Livingstone’s Flying Fox has been adopted by the government of the Union of the Comoros and is just one of many programs intended to help the Livingstone’s flying fox.
False
What kind of herbivore is the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Frugivore
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit.
Folivore
Detritivore
Ruminant
How long does Livingstone’s flying fox weaning last?
4-6 Months
The young are weaned within 4 to 6 months of being born.
2-4 Months
6-12 Months
12-18 Months
The Livingstone’s flying fox occurs in protected areas.
False
The Livingstone’s flying fox does not occur in any protected areas.
True
When are Livingstone’s flying foxes born?
Summer-Fall
Gestation lasts 4 to 6 months, after which the young is born between July and October.
Fall-Winter
Winter-Spring
Spring-Summer
When are Livingstone flying foxes much more selective on what and where they feed?
Dry Season
In the dry season, Livingstone’s flying foxes tend to be much more selective on what and where they feed, preferring fig trees, but in the rainy season when more food is available, they feed on a larger variety of fruits.
Rainy Season
Why are trees felled in the Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat?
Fuelwood
The Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat change is caused by cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction, and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use for subsistence agriculture and for export crops such as cloves.
Construction
The Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat change is caused by cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction, and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use for subsistence agriculture and for export crops such as cloves.
Agricultural Use
The Livingstone’s flying fox’s habitat change is caused by cutting of trees for fuelwood and construction, and by conversion of all but the steepest upland areas to agricultural use for subsistence agriculture and for export crops such as cloves.
Ranching Livestock
Rapid destruction of the Livingstone’s flying fox’s forest habitats indicates these bats may become extinct within 10 years.
True
Rapid destruction of the forest habitats the Livingstone’s flying fox rely on indicates these bats may become extinct within 10 years.
False
In what type of habitat does the Livingstone’s flying fox reside?
Forest
The Livingstone’s flying fox roosts and forages primarily in native forests and underplanted forests and avoids areas heavily affected by human disturbance.
Caves & Subterranean
Rocky Areas
Shrubland
Livingstone’s flying foxes are considered a nuisance.
False
There are no adverse effects of Livingstone’s flying foxes on humans and they avoid areas heavily affected by human disturbance.
True
What is the rhythm of the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Nocturnal
Like other pteropodids, Livingstone’s flying foxes are nocturnal. They are active in the evening and at night when foraging for fruit. Females forage at night and return to their young in the maternity roost to nurse them.
Diurnal
Crepuscular
Cathemeral
What is the lifespan of the Livingstone’s flying fox?
15-30 Years
The Livingstone’s flying fox can be long-lived in captivity, but its longevity isn’t well-documented and is estimated to be 15-30 years based on other Pteropus species.
1-5 Years
5-15 Years
30-50 Years
Livingstone’s flying foxes exhibit sexual dimorphism.
False
Livingstone’s flying foxes do not exhibit sexual dimorphism.
True, Males are Larger
True, Females are Larger
The Livingstone’s flying fox breeding program has increased the captive population from 17 to how many individuals?
59
The captive population of the bat subsequently expanded at a slower rate than other fruit bat species in captive breeding programs, such as the Rodrigues flying fox (Pteropus rodricensis), at least initially. However, by 2014, the Livingstone’s flying fox captive population had reached 59 individuals, 22 females and 37 males, housed at four institutions: the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust in Jersey, U.K.; Bristol, Clifton; West of England Zoological Society, in Bristol, U.K.; North of England Zoological Society in Chester, U.K.; and Lisieux Cerza in Lisieux, France.
29
109
509
Both male and female Livingstone’s flying foxes partake in parental investment.
False
There is limited information available specifically on parental investment in the Livingstone’s flying fox, but males are known not to stay around after mating, leaving the females to raise and care for the young.
True
What are predators of the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Humans
Humans are the primary predators of the species, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction. Other predators have not been documented, but large arboreal snakes and raptors make take young and adult Livingstone’s flying foxes.
Snakes
Humans are the primary predators of the species, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction. Other predators have not been documented, but large arboreal snakes and raptors make take young and adult Livingstone’s flying foxes.
Raptors
Humans are the primary predators of the species, both for food and as a secondary result of forest destruction. Other predators have not been documented, but large arboreal snakes and raptors make take young and adult Livingstone’s flying foxes.
Lemurs
Which tree is most important for the Livingstone’s flying fox?
Giant-Leaved Fig Tree
A very important tree for the Livingstone’s flying fox and the Seychelles flying fox (Pteropus seychellensis) during the dry season is the giant-leaved fig tree (Ficus lutea). This tree is chosen over many other fig trees.
Kapok
Antandronarum
Mangrove
How do Livingstone’s flying foxes most often gain height when flying?
Updrafts of Warm Air
Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide and circle in an attempt to gain height, rather than fly directly. They use updrafts of warm air to help extend their gliding distance.
Gliding
Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide and circle in an attempt to gain height, rather than fly directly. They use updrafts of warm air to help extend their gliding distance.
Circling
Because they have very slow wing beats and a relatively slow, flapping flight, Livingstone’s flying foxes often glide and circle in an attempt to gain height, rather than fly directly. They use updrafts of warm air to help extend their gliding distance.
Flapping
How many key Livingstone’s flying fox roost sites have been identified?
7
Critical roosting habitat at seven key roost sites that together harbored more than half the population was identified during the development of the Conservation Action Plan for Livingstone’s Flying Fox. Habitat conservation of these roost sites was identified as a key goal in this plan.
2
17
32
Livingstone’s flying foxes prefer to roost on steep-sided valleys with slopes that face which direction?
Southeast
They prefer to roost in emergent trees, primarily on steep-sided valleys with southeast facing slopes, near ridge tops and in areas generally associated with dense natural vegetation.
Southwest
Northeast
Northwest
The Livingstone’s flying fox has taken advantage of elevational differences in tree fruiting phenology to compensate for seasonal variation in fruit availability.
True
The Livingstone’s flying fox may have naturally taken advantage of elevational differences in tree fruiting phenology to compensate for seasonal variation in fruit availability.
False
What is the average size of a group of Livingstone’s flying foxes?
15-150
Colony size typically ranges from 15 to 150 individuals. The largest known roosts have sometimes reached about 250 individuals during the rainy season, but not all of these are mature individuals.
1-15
150-1,500
1,500-5,000
What do Livingstone’s flying foxes feed on?
Fruit
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit. They also feed on nectar and leaves, to a lesser degree.
Nectar
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit. They also feed on nectar and leaves, to a lesser degree.
Leaves
Livingstone’s flying foxes are frugivorous herbivores and feed primarily on fruit. They also feed on nectar and leaves, to a lesser degree.
Insects
The habitat loss of the Livingstone’s flying fox’s has exceeded what percentage over the past 3 generations?
80%
True population change in the Livingstone’s flying fox is unknown and data on habitat change over time is limited. Best estimates indicate habitat loss has exceeded 80% over the past three generations (estimated generation length: 8.1 years/generation), because remaining habitat is increasingly degraded and fragmented, and because declines in the extent and quality of habitat are continuing.
20%
40%
60%
The Livingstone’s flying fox is hunted for food more than other bats in its region.
False
There is no evidence that the Livingstone’s flying fox is hunted for food, a key factor affecting other fruit bat species. This may be due in part to cultural taboos among the majority of the population that surround consumption of fruit bats. However, the apparent lack of hunting may also be due in part to the bat’s habit of roosting in inaccessible areas remote from towns. Some limited hunting of the other two fruit bat species in the Comoros has been occasionally recorded.
True
To how many young does a Livingstone’s flying fox typically give birth?
1
Gestation lasts 4 to 6 months, after which a single young is born.
5
10
20

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Learn More About the Livingstone’s Flying Fox

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