Forest

Habitats

Forest

  • 1.1. Boreal
  • 1.2. Subarctic
  • 1.3. Subantarctic
  • 1.4. Temperate
  • 1.5. Subtropical/tropical dry
  • 1.6. Subtropical/tropical moist lowland
  • 1.7. Subtropical/tropical mangrove vegetation above high tide level
  • 1.8. Subtropical/tropical swamp
  • 1.9. Subtropical/tropical moist montane

 

Forest Animals

North America

Continents

North America

 

North American Animals

Savanna

Habitats

Savanna

  • 2.1. Dry
  • 2.2. Moist

 

Savanna Animals

Europe

Continents

Europe

 

European Animals

Asia

Continents

Asia

 

Asian Animals

Shrubland

Habitats

Shrubland

  • 3.1. Subarctic
  • 3.2. Subantarctic
  • 3.3. Boreal
  • 3.4. Temperate
  • 3.5. Subtropical/tropical dry
  • 3.6. Subtropical/tropical moist
  • 3.7. Subtropical/tropical high altitude
  • 3.8. Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetation

 

Shrubland Animals

Grassland

Habitats

Grassland

  • 4.1. Tundra
  • 4.2. Subarctic
  • 4.3. Subantarctic
  • 4.4. Temperate
  • 4.5. Subtropical/tropical dry
  • 4.6. Subtropical/tropical seasonally wet/flooded
  • 4.7. Subtropical/tropical high altitude

 

Grassland Animals

South America

Continents

South America

 

South American Animals

Wetlands

Habitats

Wetlands (Inland)

  • 5.1. Permanent rivers/streams/creeks (includes waterfalls)
  • 5.2. Seasonal/intermittent/irregular rivers/streams/creeks
  • 5.3. Shrub dominated wetlands
  • 5.4. Bogs, marshes, swamps, fens, peatlands
  • 5.5. Permanent freshwater lakes (over 8 ha)
  • 5.6. Seasonal/intermittent freshwater lakes (over 8 ha)
  • 5.7. Permanent freshwater marshes/pools (under 8 ha)
  • 5.8. Seasonal/intermittent freshwater marshes/pools (under 8 ha)
  • 5.9. Freshwater springs and oases
  • 5.10. Tundra wetlands (inc. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt)
  • 5.11. Alpine wetlands (inc. temporary waters from snowmelt)
  • 5.12. Geothermal wetlands
  • 5.13. Permanent inland deltas
  • 5.14. Permanent saline, brackish or alkaline lakes
  • 5.15. Seasonal/intermittent saline, brackish or alkaline lakes and flats
  • 5.16. Permanent saline, brackish or alkaline marshes/pools
  • 5.17. Seasonal/intermittent saline, brackish or alkaline marshes/pools
  • 5.18. Karst and other subterranean hydrological systems (inland)

 

Wetland Animals

Africa

Continents

Africa

 

African Animals

Rocky

Habitats

Rocky

  • Inland Cliffs
  • Mountain Peaks

 

Rocky Area Animals

Australia

Continents

Australia

 

Australian Animals

Antarctica

Continents

Antarctica

 

Antarctic Animals

Caves & Subterranean

Habitats

Caves & Subterranean (Non-Aquatic)

  • 7.1. Caves
  • 7.2. Other subterranean habitats

 

Caves & Subterranean Animals

Desert

Habitats

Desert

  • 8.1. Hot
  • 8.2. Temperate
  • 8.3. Cold

 

Desert Animals

Marine Neritic

Habitats

Marine Neritic

  • 9.1. Pelagic
  • 9.2. Subtidal rock and rocky reefs
  • 9.3. Subtidal loose rock/pebble/gravel
  • 9.4. Subtidal sandy
  • 9.5. Subtidal sandy-mud
  • 9.6. Subtidal muddy
  • 9.7. Macroalgal/kelp
  • 9.8. Coral Reef
    • 9.8.1. Outer reef channel
    • 9.8.2. Back slope
    • 9.8.3. Foreslope (outer reef slope)
    • 9.8.4. Lagoon
    • 9.8.5. Inter-reef soft substrate
    • 9.8.6. Inter-reef rubble substrate
  • 9.9 Seagrass (Submerged)
  • 9.10 Estuaries

 

Marine Neritic Animals

Marine Oceanic

Habitats

Marine Oceanic

  • 10.1 Epipelagic (0–200 m)
  • 10.2 Mesopelagic (200–1,000 m)
  • 10.3 Bathypelagic (1,000–4,000 m)
  • 10.4 Abyssopelagic (4,000–6,000 m)

 

Marine Oceanic Animals

Marine Deep Ocean Floor

Habitats

Marine Deep Ocean Floor (Benthic and Demersal)

  • 11.1 Continental Slope/Bathyl Zone (200–4,000 m)
    • 11.1.1 Hard Substrate
    • 11.1.2 Soft Substrate
  • 11.2 Abyssal Plain (4,000–6,000 m)
  • 11.3 Abyssal Mountain/Hills (4,000–6,000 m)
  • 11.4 Hadal/Deep Sea Trench (>6,000 m)
  • 11.5 Seamount
  • 11.6 Deep Sea Vents (Rifts/Seeps)

 

Marine Deep Ocean Floor Animals

Marine Intertidal

Habitats

Marine Intertidal

  • 12.1 Rocky Shoreline
  • 12.2 Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, etc.
  • 12.3 Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches
  • 12.4 Mud Shoreline and Intertidal Mud Flats
  • 12.5 Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
  • 12.6 Tidepools
  • 12.7 Mangrove Submerged Roots

 

Marine Intertidal Animals

Marine Coastal/Supratidal

Habitats

Marine Coastal/Supratidal

  • 13.1 Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands
  • 13.2 Coastal Caves/Karst
  • 13.3 Coastal Sand Dunes
  • 13.4 Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes
  • 13.5 Coastal Freshwater Lakes

 

Marine Coastal/Supratidal Animals

Artificial Terrestrial

Habitats

Artificial – Terrestrial

  • 14.1 Arable Land
  • 14.2 Pastureland
  • 14.3 Plantations
  • 14.4 Rural Gardens
  • 14.5 Urban Areas
  • 14.6 Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest

 

Artificial Terrestrial Animals

Artificial Aquatic

Habitats

Artificial – Aquatic

  • 15.1 Water Storage Areas [over 8 ha]
  • 15.2 Ponds [below 8 ha]
  • 15.3 Aquaculture Ponds
  • 15.4 Salt Exploitation Sites
  • 15.5 Excavations (open)
  • 15.6 Wastewater Treatment Areas
  • 15.7 Irrigated Land [includes irrigation channels]
  • 15.8 Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
  • 15.9 Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
  • 15.10 Karst and Other Subterranean Hydrological Systems [human-made]
  • 15.11 Marine Anthropogenic Structures
  • 15.12 Mariculture Cages
  • 15.13 Mari/Brackish-culture Pond

 

Artificial Aquatic
Habitats

Introduced Vegetation

 

Introduced Vegetation Animals

Other

Other

 

Other Habitat Animals

Unknown

Unknown

 

Unknown Habitat Animals

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red fox pups are born blind and are cooperatively cared for and provided with solid food by the mother, father, and sometimes unmated helpers and older offspring until the pups leave in the autumn following their birth.

Red fox pups are born blind and weigh between 50-150 grams, but their eyes open 9-14 days after birth. The pups remain in the den for 4-5 weeks after birth where they are cooperatively cared for and provided with solid food by the mother, father, and sometimes un-mated helpers and older offspring. The pups are kept in and near a den and protected by the family to avoid predators. They are nursed by their mother for 56-70 days and are fully weaned by 8-10 weeks.

Red fox pups remain with their mother until at least the autumn following their birth, but some, especially females, will sometimes remain longer. The pups will disperse to their own territories as nearby as 10 kilometers and as far away as almost 400 kilometers. There, the grown pups will remain in the same home range for life.


Image | © Minette Layne, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Like many other canid species, red foxes scent mark through urine, feces, anal sac secretions, supracaudal glands, and glands around the tail, lips, jaws, and pawpads.

Red fox scent marking is through urine, feces, anal sac secretions, the supracaudal gland, and glands around the lips, jaw, and the pads of the feet.

Like many other canid species, red foxes have tail glands, located 75 millimeters above the root of the tail on its upper surface and lies within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue.


Image | © Karen Bullock, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

The red fox’s top speed is about 48 kph and obstacles as high as 2 m. can be lept.

The red fox’s top speed is about 48 kilometers per hour, or 30 miles per hour, and obstacles as high as 2 meters, or 6.5 feet, can be lept.


Image | © Tony’s Takes, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red fox density is highly variable, ranging from as little as 1 fox/40 km² to as high as 30 foxes/km² in urban areas where food is abundant.

Red fox density is highly variable.

In the United Kingdom, density varies between one fox per 40 square kilometers in Scotland and 1.17 per square kilometers in Wales, but can be as high as 30 foxes per square kilometers in some urban areas where food is superabundant. Social group density is one family per square kilometer in farmland, but may vary between 0.2-5 families per square kilometer in the suburbs. Fox density in mountainous rural areas of Switzerland is three foxes per square kilometer. 0.17 foxes per square kilometer has been recorded in the grassland/semi desert steppe of Mongolia. In northern boreal forests and Arctic tundra, they occur at densities of 0.1 foxes per square kilometer, and in southern Ontario, Canada at 1 fox per square kilometer. The average social group density in the Swiss mountains is 0.37 families per square kilometer.


Image | © Karen Bullock, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Harris, 1977; Harris & Rayner, 1986; Hoffmann & Macdonald, 1981; Macdonald & Newdick, 1982; Murdoch, 2009; Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; Voigt, 1987; Weber, Meia, & Meyer, 1999)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Threats to the red fox are highly localized and include habitat degradation, loss, and fragmentation, exploitation, and direct and indirect persecution.

Threats to the red fox are highly localized and include habitat degradation, loss, and fragmentation, exploitation, and direct and indirect persecution.

For example, a regional IUCN Red List assessment in Mongolia classified the species as Near Threatened mainly due to over-hunting, while in South Korea, red foxes have experienced declines due to habitat loss and poaching and are generally considered extinct.


Image | © Tony’s Takes, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Clark & Munkhbat, 2006; Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; Yu, et al., 2012)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Female red foxes gestate for 49-56 days before giving birth to 1-13 pups, averaging 5, while the male provides food outside of the maternity den.

Red fox sexual maturity is reached by 10 months.

Male red foxes will fight during the breeding season. Males have a cycle of fecundity, with full spermatogenesis only occurring from November to March.

The annual estrous period of female red foxes last from one to six days. Ovulation is spontaneous and does not require copulation to occur. The exact time of estrous and breeding varies across the broad geographic range of the species: December-January in the south, January-February in the central regions, and February-April in the north. Females may mate with a number of males but will establish a partnership with only one male.

Copulation usually lasts 15 or 20 minutes and is often accompanied by a vocal clamor. Implantation of the fertilized egg occurs between 10 and 14 days after a successful mating. Just before and for a time after giving birth the female remains in or around the den. The male partner will provision his mate with food but does not go into the maternity den. Gestation is typically between 51 and 53 days but can be as short as 49 days or as long as 56 days. Litters vary in size from 1 to 13 pups with an average of 5.


Image | © Karen Bullock, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes originated in the Middle East, then radiated out to the Arctic Circle, Europe, North Africa, the Asiatic steppes, India, and Japan.

A recent extensive global phylogeny of red foxes that included about 1,000 samples from across the species’ range found that red foxes originated in the Middle East, then radiated out.

The red fox has the widest geographical range of any member of the order Carnivora, covering nearly 70 million square kilometers and being distributed widely across the entire northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to southern North America, Europe, North Africa, the Asiatic steppes, India, and Japan. Red foxes have also been introduced elsewhere.


Image | © Minette Layne, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005; Statham, et al., 2014)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes are preyed on by coyotes, wolves, and other predators, but their most significant predators are humans, killing them for their fur and nuisance.

Most red foxes that are taken by natural predators are young pups, but adults can be attacked by coyotes (Canis latrans), wolves, bears, owls, and other predators. Red foxes are rarely eaten by such predators.

The most significant predators on red foxes are humans, who hunt foxes for their fur and kill them in large numbers as pests.


Image | © Minette Layne, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes in North America are genetically distinct and probably merit recognition as a distinct species (Vulpes fulva).

A recent extensive global phylogeny of red foxes that included about 1,000 samples from across the species’ range found that red foxes in North America are genetically distinct and probably merit recognition as a distinct species (Vulpes fulva).


Image | © Olga Kononenko, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; Statham, et al., 2014)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Two natural color variants occur in the red fox as 25% are cross foxes with black stripes down the back and shoulders, and 10% are silver foxes with a silver and black coat.

Two color variants of the red fox commonly occur.

Cross foxes, making up 25% of red fox individuals, have reddish brown fur with a black stripe down the back and another across the shoulders.

Silver foxes make up 10% of red fox individuals, and range from strong silver to nearly black. Silver foxes are the most prized by furriers.


Image | © Zdeněk Macháček, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes use 28 different vocalizations to communicate nearby and far away, and individuals have voices that can be distinguished.

Red foxes have excellent senses of vision, smell, and touch and extensively use a variety of vocalizations, facial expressions, and scent marking to communicate among themselves.

There have been 28 different kinds of vocalizations described in red foxes and individuals have voices that can be distinguished. Vocalizations are used to communicate with foxes that are both nearby and very far away.

Red fox scent marking is through urine, feces, anal sac secretions, the supracaudal gland, and glands around the lips, jaw, and the pads of the feet.


Image | © cloudvisual.co.uk, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes are often monogamous, but polygyny can occur with one breeding male and several breeding females all sharing a den.

Red fox mating behavior varies substantially. Red fox groups always have only one breeding male, but that male may also seek mating outside of the group, known as polygyny. Often, males and females are monogamous, but males with multiple female mates are also known, as are male/female pairs that use non-breeding female helpers in raising their young.

Females mated to the same male fox may share a den.


Image | © Karen Bullock, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Coloration of red foxes ranges from pale yellowish red to deep reddish brown on the upper parts and white, ash, or slate on the underside.

Coloration of red foxes ranges from pale yellowish red to deep reddish brown on the upper parts and white, ash, or slate on the underside. The lower part of the legs is usually black and the tail usually has a white or black tip.

The eyes of mature red foxes are yellow and the nose is dark brown or black.


Image | © Dana Critchlow, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

The red fox has a stable population trend and the pre-breeding British red fox population has been estimated at about 240,000 indidviduals.

The red fox’s population trend has been evaluated as Stable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.

The pre-breeding British red fox population has been estimated at about 240,000 individuals.

The mean number of red foxes killed per unit area by gamekeepers has increased steadily since the early 1960’s in Britain, but it is not clear to what extent this reflects an increase in fox abundance. Although an increase in fox numbers following successful rabies control by vaccination was widely reported in Europe, no direct measures of population density have been taken. Red fox bagging in Germany has risen from 250,000 in 1982–1983 to 600,000 in 2000–2001.


Image | © Karen Bullock, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; Harris, Morris, Wray, & Yalden, 1995; Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes inhabit forest, shrubland, grassland, wetlands, desert, and artificial terrestrial habitats, flourishing particularly well in urban areas.

Red foxes have been recorded in forest, shrubland, grassland, wetlands, desert, and artificial terrestrial habitats. They inhabit habitats as diverse as tundra, non-extreme deserts, and city centers, including London, Paris, and Stockholm.

The red fox’s natural habitat is dry, mixed vegetation landscape with abundant edge of scrub and woodland. They are also abundant on prairies, moorlands, sand dunes, farmland, and even mountains, above the tree-line, known to cross alpine passes. They occur from sea level to 4,500 meters.

In the United Kingdom, red foxes generally prefer mosaic patchworks of scrub, woodland, and farmland.

Red foxes flourish particularly well in urban areas. They are most common in residential suburbs consisting of privately owned, low-density housing and are less common where industry, commerce, or council rented housing predominates. In many habitats, foxes appear to be closely associated with people, even thriving in intensive agricultural areas.


Image | © Nathan Anderson, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; Harris & Smith, 1987; Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

The body mass and length of red foxes varies as foxes in Europe and northern latitudes are larger than those in North America and southern latitudes.

The body mass and length of red foxes varies by region and by latitude.

According to Bergmann’s rule, red foxes are larger in the north. Those in southern deserts and in North America are smaller than those in European populations.


Image | © Ray Hennessy, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes are territorial, solitary animals that remain in the same home range for life keeping earthen dens abandoned by rabbits and marmots.

Red foxes are solitary animals and do not form packs like wolves. Ranges are occupied by an adult male and one or two adult females with their associated young.

The red fox is as least partially territorial and remains in the same home range for life. During some parts of the year adjacent ranges may overlap somewhat, but parts may be regularly defended.

Individual red fox adults have home ranges that vary in size depending on the quality of the habitat. In good areas, ranges may be between 5 and 12 square kilometers, but in poorer habitats, ranges are larger, between 20 and 50 square kilometers.

Individuals and family groups have main earthen dens and often other emergency burrows in the home range. Dens of other animals, such as rabbits or marmots, are often taken over by foxes. Larger dens may be dug and used during the winter and during birth and rearing of the young. The same den is often used over a number of generations. Pathways throughout the home range connect the main den with other resting sites, favored hunting grounds and food storage areas.


Image | © Karen Bullock, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes live an average of 3 years in the wild, but can live 10-12 years in captivity.

Red foxes have been known to live 10 to 12 years in captivity, but live on average 3 years in the wild.


Image | © Yuriy Chemerys, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

The red fox has been evaluated as “Least Concern” because of its wide geographical range, vast introduction in other regions, adaptability, opportunistic diet, and success in urban areas.

The red fox has been evaluated as Least Concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species because of its wide geographical range, vast introduction in other regions, adaptability, opportunistic diet, and success in urban areas.

The red fox has the widest geographical range of any member of the order Carnivora, being distributed widely across the entire northern hemisphere, and has been introduced elsewhere. Red Foxes are adaptable and opportunistic omnivores and are capable of successfully occupying urban areas. In many habitats, foxes appear to be closely associated with people, even thriving in intensive agricultural areas.

The red fox’s general versatility and eclectic, omnivorous diet are likely to ensure its persistence despite changes in landscape and prey base. Culling may be able to reduce numbers well below carrying capacity in large regions, but no known situations exist where this currently threatens species persistence on any geographical scale.


Image | © Qijin Xu, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; Heydon & Reynolds, 2006; Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes display sexual dimorphism in body size as males are slightly larger than females.

Red fox males are slightly larger than females.

On average, the head and body length ranges from 455 to 900 millimeters, tail length from 300 to 555 millimeters, and weight from 3 to 14 kilograms.


ImageKaren Bullock, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes are widely kept in wildlife parks and zoos but are extremely shy in exhibits.

In addition to fur farms, red foxes are widely kept in small wildlife parks and zoos, but there appears to be no systematic data on their breeding success. Being extremely shy, they are often poor exhibits.


ImageKaren Bullock, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

The number of red foxes raised for fur exceeds that of any other species, except possibly American mink (Neovison vison), and the silver variant is the most prized by furriers.

Red foxes are important fur bearers and the number of red foxes raised for fur exceeds that of any other species, except possibly American mink (Neovison vison).

Color variants of the red fox, including white, silver, and cross that are rare in the wild, are particularly farmed. Cross foxes, making up 25% of red fox individuals, have reddish brown fur with a black stripe down the back and another across the shoulders. Silver foxes make up 10% of red fox individuals, and range from strong silver to nearly black. Silver foxes are the most prized by furriers.

Worldwide trade in ranched red fox pelts, mainly silver pelts from Finland, has reduced since the 1900’s, but was 700,000 in 1988–1989 (excluding internal consumption in the USSR). Active fur trade in Britain in the 1970s was negligible.


ImageWaldemar Brandt, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; Obbard, 1987; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Holiday Art Trade 2019

With 2019 coming to an end and 2020 starting, the 3rd annual FaunaFocus Holiday Art Trade has concluded!

This year, 18 different artists participated, helping to spread cheer throughout the season. Each artist created artwork that featured an animal species requested by another participant, secret Santa style. With a variety of media and styles, it was a pleasure to view each entry and every artist received a surprise gift in return.

Thanks to everyone who participated and created stunning work! To those who took part, enjoy your gifted art!

With the new year starting, we’re already looking forward to the 4th annual FaunaFocus Holiday Art Trade. Sign-ups will open at the beginning of November!

Red Fox

Red Fox

The red fox has the widest geographical range of any member of the order Carnivora, covering nearly 70 million km² across the entire northern hemisphere.

The red fox has the widest geographical range of any member of the order Carnivora, covering nearly 70 million square kilometers and being distributed widely across the entire northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to southern North America, Europe, North Africa, the Asiatic steppes, India, and Japan. Red foxes have also been introduced elsewhere.

Red foxes are not found in Iceland, the Arctic islands, or some parts of Siberia. They are generally considered extinct in the Republic of Korea where there have been several mammal surveys in recent years (including the DMZ) that have not shown any evidence of foxes.


ImageTony’s Takes, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; Hoffmann & Sillero-Zubiri, 2016; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes are terrestrial and either nocturnal or crepuscular.

Red foxes are terrestrial and either nocturnal or crepuscular.


Image | © Mirkos Tsarouchidis, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

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Red Fox Trivia

Red Fox

Do you think you know the red fox? Test your knowledge of red fox FaunaFacts with this trivia quiz!

Click on an answer choice to receive instant feedback. Red answers are incorrect, but allow you to continue guessing. Green answers are correct and will provide additional explanatory information. Sometimes more than one answer is correct!

Learn More About the Red Fox | Play on Quizizz


What is the red fox’s population trend?
Stable
The red fox’s population trend has been evaluated as Stable on the Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.
Increasing
Decreasing
Unknown

What continents do red foxes inhabit?
North America
The red fox is distributed widely across the entire northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to southern North America, Europe, North Africa, the Asiatic steppes, India, and Japan. Red foxes have also been introduced elsewhere.
Europe
The red fox is distributed widely across the entire northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to southern North America, Europe, North Africa, the Asiatic steppes, India, and Japan. Red foxes have also been introduced elsewhere.
Africa
The red fox is distributed widely across the entire northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to southern North America, Europe, North Africa, the Asiatic steppes, India, and Japan. Red foxes have also been introduced elsewhere.
South America

How many vocalizations does the red fox have?
28
There have been 28 different kinds of vocalizations described in red foxes.
8
18
38

Which of the red fox’s senses are keen?
Vision
Red foxes have excellent senses of vision, smell, and touch.
Smell
Red foxes have excellent senses of vision, smell, and touch.
Touch
Red foxes have excellent senses of vision, smell, and touch.
Taste

The red fox’s dew claw makes contact with the ground.
False
The red fox’s first digit, or dew claw, is rudimentary, but clawed, and does not contact the ground.
True

What is the red fox’s mating system?
Monogamy
Red fox mating behavior varies substantially. Red fox groups always have only one breeding male, but that male may also seek mating outside of the group, known as polygyny. Often, males and females are monogamous, but males with multiple female mates are also known, as are male/female pairs that use non-breeding female helpers in raising their young.
Polygyny
Red fox mating behavior varies substantially. Red fox groups always have only one breeding male, but that male may also seek mating outside of the group, known as polygyny. Often, males and females are monogamous, but males with multiple female mates are also known, as are male/female pairs that use non-breeding female helpers in raising their young.
Polyandry
Polygynandry

How do red foxes communicate?
Vocalizations
Red foxes extensively use a variety of vocalizations, facial expressions, and scent marking to communicate among themselves.
Facial Expressions
Red foxes extensively use a variety of vocalizations, facial expressions, and scent marking to communicate among themselves.
Scent Marking
Red foxes extensively use a variety of vocalizations, facial expressions, and scent marking to communicate among themselves.
Howling

There is sexual dimorphism in the body size of red foxes.
True, males are larger.
Red fox males are slightly larger than females.
True, females are larger.
False.

When does the red fox sexually mature?
10 Months
Red fox sexual maturity is reached by 10 months.
5 Months
15 Months
20 Months

Red foxes are shy around people.
True
Being extremely shy, red foxes are often poor exhibits.
False

What is the red fox’s social system?
Solitary
Red foxes are solitary animals and do not form packs like wolves. Ranges are occupied by an adult male and one or two adult females with their associated young.
Social

Red foxes are territorial.
True
The red fox is as least partially territorial. During some parts of the year adjacent ranges may overlap somewhat, but parts may be regularly defended.
False

Red foxes remain in the same home range for life.
True
Red foxes remain in the same home range for life.
False

Where have red foxes been introduced?
Canada
In the 17th century, the European red fox subspecies was introduced in Canada and the eastern United States (where they were relatively scarce and the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) was common). The species was also introduced to Australia in the 1800’s and to Tasmania in the late 1990’s, although there is evidence that an eradication campaign for red foxes on Tasmania has proved effective. Elsewhere, the red fox has been introduced to the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and to the Isle of Man in the United Kingdom, although they never properly established on the Isle of Man and may subsequently have disappeared.
United States
In the 17th century, the European red fox subspecies was introduced in Canada and the eastern United States (where they were relatively scarce and the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) was common). The species was also introduced to Australia in the 1800’s and to Tasmania in the late 1990’s, although there is evidence that an eradication campaign for red foxes on Tasmania has proved effective. Elsewhere, the red fox has been introduced to the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and to the Isle of Man in the United Kingdom, although they never properly established on the Isle of Man and may subsequently have disappeared.
Australia
In the 17th century, the European red fox subspecies was introduced in Canada and the eastern United States (where they were relatively scarce and the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) was common). The species was also introduced to Australia in the 1800’s and to Tasmania in the late 1990’s, although there is evidence that an eradication campaign for red foxes on Tasmania has proved effective. Elsewhere, the red fox has been introduced to the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and to the Isle of Man in the United Kingdom, although they never properly established on the Isle of Man and may subsequently have disappeared.
Britain

Who helps raise young red foxes?
Mother
Young red foxes remain in the den after birth where they are cooperatively cared for and provided with solid food by the mother, father, and sometimes un-mated helpers and older offspring.
Father
Young red foxes remain in the den after birth where they are cooperatively cared for and provided with solid food by the mother, father, and sometimes un-mated helpers and older offspring.
Unrelated Adult
Young red foxes remain in the den after birth where they are cooperatively cared for and provided with solid food by the mother, father, and sometimes un-mated helpers and older offspring.
Older Sibling
Young red foxes remain in the den after birth where they are cooperatively cared for and provided with solid food by the mother, father, and sometimes un-mated helpers and older offspring.

The red fox has the widest geographical range of any canine.
True
The red fox has the widest geographical range of any member of the order Carnivora, covering nearly 70 million square kilometers.
False

Red foxes are the largest species of the Vulpes genus.
True
Red foxes are the largest species of the Vulpes species. The head and body length ranges from 455 to 900 millimeters, tail length from 300 to 555 millimeters, and weight from 3 to 14 kilograms.
False

What preys on red foxes?
Coyotes
Most red foxes that are taken by natural predators are young, but adults can be attacked by coyotes (Canis latrans), wolves, bears, owls, and other predators. Red foxes are rarely eaten by such predators. The most significant predators on red foxes are humans, who hunt foxes for their fur and kill them in large numbers as pests.
Humans
Most red foxes that are taken by natural predators are young, but adults can be attacked by coyotes (Canis latrans), wolves, bears, owls, and other predators. Red foxes are rarely eaten by such predators. The most significant predators on red foxes are humans, who hunt foxes for their fur and kill them in large numbers as pests.
Bears
Most red foxes that are taken by natural predators are young, but adults can be attacked by coyotes (Canis latrans), wolves, bears, owls, and other predators. Red foxes are rarely eaten by such predators. The most significant predators on red foxes are humans, who hunt foxes for their fur and kill them in large numbers as pests.
Owls
Most red foxes that are taken by natural predators are young, but adults can be attacked by coyotes (Canis latrans), wolves, bears, owls, and other predators. Red foxes are rarely eaten by such predators. The most significant predators on red foxes are humans, who hunt foxes for their fur and kill them in large numbers as pests.

What is the red fox considered?
Terrestrial
Red foxes are terrestrial.
Arboreal
Aquatic
Fossorial

What habitats do red foxes inhabit?
Forest
Red foxes have been recorded in forest, shrubland, grassland, wetlands, desert, and artificial terrestrial habitats. They inhabit habitats as diverse as tundra, non-extreme deserts, and city centers, including London, Paris, and Stockholm. The red fox’s natural habitat is dry, mixed vegetation landscape with abundant edge of scrub and woodland. They are also abundant on prairies, moorlands, sand dunes, farmland, and even mountains, above the tree-line, known to cross alpine passes. They occur from sea level to 4,500 meters. In the United Kingdom, red foxes generally prefer mosaic patchworks of scrub, woodland, and farmland.
Desert
Red foxes have been recorded in forest, shrubland, grassland, wetlands, desert, and artificial terrestrial habitats. They inhabit habitats as diverse as tundra, non-extreme deserts, and city centers, including London, Paris, and Stockholm. The red fox’s natural habitat is dry, mixed vegetation landscape with abundant edge of scrub and woodland. They are also abundant on prairies, moorlands, sand dunes, farmland, and even mountains, above the tree-line, known to cross alpine passes. They occur from sea level to 4,500 meters. In the United Kingdom, red foxes generally prefer mosaic patchworks of scrub, woodland, and farmland.
Artificial Terrestrial
Red foxes have been recorded in forest, shrubland, grassland, wetlands, desert, and artificial terrestrial habitats. They inhabit habitats as diverse as tundra, non-extreme deserts, and city centers, including London, Paris, and Stockholm. The red fox’s natural habitat is dry, mixed vegetation landscape with abundant edge of scrub and woodland. They are also abundant on prairies, moorlands, sand dunes, farmland, and even mountains, above the tree-line, known to cross alpine passes. They occur from sea level to 4,500 meters. In the United Kingdom, red foxes generally prefer mosaic patchworks of scrub, woodland, and farmland.
Wetlands
Red foxes have been recorded in forest, shrubland, grassland, wetlands, desert, and artificial terrestrial habitats. They inhabit habitats as diverse as tundra, non-extreme deserts, and city centers, including London, Paris, and Stockholm. The red fox’s natural habitat is dry, mixed vegetation landscape with abundant edge of scrub and woodland. They are also abundant on prairies, moorlands, sand dunes, farmland, and even mountains, above the tree-line, known to cross alpine passes. They occur from sea level to 4,500 meters. In the United Kingdom, red foxes generally prefer mosaic patchworks of scrub, woodland, and farmland.

What is the red fox’s scientific name?
Vulpes vulpes
The red fox’s scientific name is Vulpes vulpes.
Vulpes zerda
Vulpes velox
Vulpes lagopus

What is the red fox’s diet?
Omnivorous
Red foxes are essentially omnivores and have an eclectic, opportunistic diet.
Herbivorous
Carnivorous
Unknown

What is the red fox’s evaluation on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species?
Least Concern
The red fox has been evaluated as “Least Concern” on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.
Near Threatened
Vulnerable
Endangered

What do red foxes eat?
Mammals
Red foxes mostly eat rodents, eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), insects, and fruit. They will also eat carrion.
Carrion
Red foxes mostly eat rodents, eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), insects, and fruit. They will also eat carrion.
Insects
Red foxes mostly eat rodents, eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), insects, and fruit. They will also eat carrion.
Fruit
Red foxes mostly eat rodents, eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), insects, and fruit. They will also eat carrion.

Why are red foxes seen as nuisances?
Threaten Poultry
Red foxes are considered by many to be threats to poultry. In general, foxes hunt their natural prey, but individual foxes may learn to target domestic birds if they are not adequately protected. Foxes are also known vectors for rabies and can transmit the disease to humans and other animals. Red foxes have caused considerable damage where they have been introduced. Their impacts on Australian fauna has been particularly well documented and control takes place by setting baits impregnated with 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate).
Invasive Species
Red foxes are considered by many to be threats to poultry. In general, foxes hunt their natural prey, but individual foxes may learn to target domestic birds if they are not adequately protected. Foxes are also known vectors for rabies and can transmit the disease to humans and other animals. Red foxes have caused considerable damage where they have been introduced. Their impacts on Australian fauna has been particularly well documented and control takes place by setting baits impregnated with 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate).
Transmit Diseases
Red foxes are considered by many to be threats to poultry. In general, foxes hunt their natural prey, but individual foxes may learn to target domestic birds if they are not adequately protected. Foxes are also known vectors for rabies and can transmit the disease to humans and other animals. Red foxes have caused considerable damage where they have been introduced. Their impacts on Australian fauna has been particularly well documented and control takes place by setting baits impregnated with 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate).
Not Good for Hunting

How fast can a red fox run?
48 kph / 30 mph
The red fox’s top speed is about 48 kilometers per hour, or 30 miles per hour.
12 kph / 7 mph
24 kph / 15 mph
60 kph / 37 mph

What countries do red foxes inhabit?
Japan
The red fox is distributed widely across the entire northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to southern North America, Europe, North Africa, the Asiatic steppes, India, Japan, and Egypt. Red foxes have also been introduced elsewhere. Red foxes are not found in Iceland, the Arctic islands, or some parts of Siberia. They are generally considered extinct in the Republic of Korea where there have been several mammal surveys in recent years (including the DMZ) that have not shown any evidence of foxes.
Egypt
The red fox is distributed widely across the entire northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to southern North America, Europe, North Africa, the Asiatic steppes, India, Japan, and Egypt. Red foxes have also been introduced elsewhere. Red foxes are not found in Iceland, the Arctic islands, or some parts of Siberia. They are generally considered extinct in the Republic of Korea where there have been several mammal surveys in recent years (including the DMZ) that have not shown any evidence of foxes.
Iceland
Mexico

Which color of red fox is the most prized by furriers?
Silver
Silver foxes are the most prized by furriers.
Red
Cross
White

How long do red foxes live in captivity?
10-12 Years
Red foxes have been known to live 10 to 12 years in captivity.
15-18 Years
20-22 Years
1-2 Years

Which red fox colors are natural in the wild?
Red
Three natural color variants of the red fox commonly occur: red, cross, and silver.
Cross
Three natural color variants of the red fox commonly occur: red, cross, and silver.
Silver
Three natural color variants of the red fox commonly occur: red, cross, and silver.
White

What threatens the red fox?
Habitat Loss
Threats to the red fox are highly localized and include habitat degradation, loss, and fragmentation, exploitation, and direct and indirect persecution. For example, a regional IUCN Red List assessment in Mongolia classified the species as Near Threatened mainly due to over-hunting, while in South Korea, red foxes have experienced declines due to habitat loss and poaching and are generally considered extinct.
Hunting
Threats to the red fox are highly localized and include habitat degradation, loss, and fragmentation, exploitation, and direct and indirect persecution. For example, a regional IUCN Red List assessment in Mongolia classified the species as Near Threatened mainly due to over-hunting, while in South Korea, red foxes have experienced declines due to habitat loss and poaching and are generally considered extinct.
Persecution
Threats to the red fox are highly localized and include habitat degradation, loss, and fragmentation, exploitation, and direct and indirect persecution. For example, a regional IUCN Red List assessment in Mongolia classified the species as Near Threatened mainly due to over-hunting, while in South Korea, red foxes have experienced declines due to habitat loss and poaching and are generally considered extinct.
Explotation
Threats to the red fox are highly localized and include habitat degradation, loss, and fragmentation, exploitation, and direct and indirect persecution. For example, a regional IUCN Red List assessment in Mongolia classified the species as Near Threatened mainly due to over-hunting, while in South Korea, red foxes have experienced declines due to habitat loss and poaching and are generally considered extinct.

Red fox individuals have voices that can be distinguished.
True
Red fox individuals have voices that can be distinguished.
False

Where do red foxes have scent glands?
Tail
Red fox scent marking is through anal sac secretions, the supracaudal gland, and glands around the lips, jaw, and the pads of the feet. Like many other canid species, red foxes have tail glands, located 75 millimeters above the root of the tail on its upper surface and lies within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue.
Pawpads
Red fox scent marking is through anal sac secretions, the supracaudal gland, and glands around the lips, jaw, and the pads of the feet. Like many other canid species, red foxes have tail glands, located 75 millimeters above the root of the tail on its upper surface and lies within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue.
Lips
Red fox scent marking is through anal sac secretions, the supracaudal gland, and glands around the lips, jaw, and the pads of the feet. Like many other canid species, red foxes have tail glands, located 75 millimeters above the root of the tail on its upper surface and lies within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue.
Ears

How many claws are on the red fox’s forepaw?
5
The red fox’s manus, the forepaw, has five claws, including the dew claw.
3
4
6

Female red foxes mated to the same male may share a den.
True
Females mated to the same male fox may share a den.
False

With what do red foxes scent mark?
Urine
Red fox scent marking is through urine, feces, anal sac secretions, the supracaudal gland, and glands around the lips, jaw, and the pads of the feet.
Feces
Red fox scent marking is through urine, feces, anal sac secretions, the supracaudal gland, and glands around the lips, jaw, and the pads of the feet.
Scent Glands
Red fox scent marking is through urine, feces, anal sac secretions, the supracaudal gland, and glands around the lips, jaw, and the pads of the feet.
Saliva

How does the male red fox aid the female during gestation?
Provide Food
The male partner will provision his mate with food but does not go into the maternity den.
Clean the Den
Keep her Warm
No Aid

How long is red fox gestation?
51-53 Days
Red fox gestation is typically between 51 and 53 days but can be as short as 49 days or as long as 56 days.
31-33 Days
71-73 Days
91-93 days

Red foxes are commonly kept in wildlife parks and zoos.
True
In addition to fur farms, red foxes are widely kept in small wildlife parks and zoos, but there appears to be no systematic data on their breeding success.
False

When is the red fox breeding season?
Winter & Spring
The exact time of red fox estrous and breeding varies across the broad geographic range of the species: December-January in the south, January-February in the central regions, and February-April in the north.
Spring & Summer
Summer & Fall
Fall & Winter

Red foxes will use the same den over a number of generations.
True
The same den is often used over a number of generations.
False

How has the mean number of red foxes killed in Britain by gamekeepers changed since the early 1960’s?
Increased
The mean number of red foxes killed per unit area by gamekeepers has increased steadily since the early 1960’s in Britain, but it is not clear to what extent this reflects an increase in fox abundance. Although an increase in fox numbers following successful rabies control by vaccination was widely reported in Europe, no direct measures of population density have been taken. Red fox bagging in Germany has risen from 250,000 in 1982–1983 to 600,000 in 2000–2001.
Decreased

For what are the red fox’s molars used?
Crushing
The red fox’s molar structure emphasizes crushing.
Tearing
Cleaning
Carving

Why were foxes introduced to new regions?
Hunting
In the 17th century, the European red fox subspecies was introduced in Canada and the eastern United States (where they were relatively scarce and the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) was common) for fox hunting.
Accidental
Fur Farming
Prey Control

When do young red fox eyes open?
2 Weeks
Young red foxes are born blind and weigh between 50-150 grams, but their eyes open 9-14 days after birth.
1 Week
1 Day
1 Month

Where did red foxes originate?
Asia
A recent extensive global phylogeny of red foxes that included about 1,000 samples from across the species’ range found that red foxes originated in the Middle East, then radiated out.
North America
Africa
Europe

The red fox is one of how many species in the Vulpes genus?
12
The red fox is one of 12 species in the Vulpes genus?
4
8
16

When do young red foxes begin leaving the den?
1 Month
Young red foxes remain in the den for 4-5 weeks after birth.
2 Weeks
1 Year
3 Months

What is the red fox’s primary rhythm?
Nocturnal
Red foxes are either nocturnal or crepuscular.
Crepuscular
Diurnal
Cathemeral

Red foxes flourish in urban habitats.
True
Red foxes flourish particularly well in urban areas. They are most common in residential suburbs consisting of privately owned, low-density housing and are less common where industry, commerce, or council rented housing predominates. In many habitats, foxes appear to be closely associated with people, even thriving in intensive agricultural areas.
False

The red fox is listed in CITES on what level?
Subspecies
The red fox is not listed in CITES Appendices at species level. However, the subspecies griffithi, montana, and pusilla (=leucopus) are listed on CITES – Appendix III (India).
Species

Which region of red foxes are genetically distinct and probably merit recognition as a distinct species?
North American
A recent extensive global phylogeny of red foxes that included about 1,000 samples from across the species’ range found that red foxes in North America are genetically distinct and probably merit recognition as a distinct species (Vulpes fulva).
European
Australian
African

What attributes to the red fox’s success as a species?
Wide Geographical Range
The red fox is successful as a species because of its wide geographical range, vast introduction in other regions, adaptability, opportunistic diet, and success in urban areas.
Opportunistic Diet
The red fox is successful as a species because of its wide geographical range, vast introduction in other regions, adaptability, opportunistic diet, and success in urban areas.
Success in Urban Habitats
The red fox is successful as a species because of its wide geographical range, vast introduction in other regions, adaptability, opportunistic diet, and success in urban areas.
Adaptability
The red fox is successful as a species because of its wide geographical range, vast introduction in other regions, adaptability, opportunistic diet, and success in urban areas.

Where are red foxes are larger?
Northern Latitudes
The body mass and length of red foxes varies by region and by latitude. According to Bergmann’s rule, red foxes are larger in the north. Those in southern deserts and in North America are smaller than those in European populations.
Europe
The body mass and length of red foxes varies by region and by latitude. According to Bergmann’s rule, red foxes are larger in the north. Those in southern deserts and in North America are smaller than those in European populations.
Southern Latitudes
North America

How do red foxes hunt mice?
Leaping
Red foxes have a characteristic manner of hunting mice, standing motionless while listening and watching intently for the mouse before leaping high and forcibly bringing the forelimbs straight down to pin the rodent to the ground.
Digging
Chasing
Climbing

Most countries have regulated closed versus open seasons and capture restrictions on red foxes.
True
Most countries and states where trapping or hunting occurs have regulated closed versus open seasons and restrictions on methods of capture.
False

How high can a red fox leap?
2 m. / 6.5 ft.
The red fox can leap over obstacles as high as 2 meters, or 6.5 feet.
1 m. / 3 ft.
4 m. / 13 ft.
6 m. / 19.5 ft.

How do red foxes contribute to the ecosystem?
Transmit Diseases
Red foxes help control populations of their prey animals, such as rodents and rabbits, and may disperse seeds by eating fruit, but they are known vectors for rabies and can transmit the disease to humans and other animals.
Prey Control
Red foxes help control populations of their prey animals, such as rodents and rabbits, and may disperse seeds by eating fruit, but they are known vectors for rabies and can transmit the disease to humans and other animals.
Seed Dispersal
Red foxes help control populations of their prey animals, such as rodents and rabbits, and may disperse seeds by eating fruit, but they are known vectors for rabies and can transmit the disease to humans and other animals.

The number of red foxes raised for fur exceeds that of any other species, except possibly which species?
American Mink
Red foxes are important fur bearers and the number of red foxes raised for fur exceeds that of any other species, except possibly American mink (Neovison vison).
American Badger
American Beaver
Northern Raccoon

What is a young red fox called?
Kit
Young red foxes are called kits, cubs, and pups.
Cub
Young red foxes are called kits, cubs, and pups.
Pup
Young red foxes are called kits, cubs, and pups.
Joey

What percentage of red fox individuals are cross?
25%
Cross foxes, making up 25% of red fox individuals, have reddish brown fur with a black stripe down the back and another across the shoulders.
10%
15%
20%

What is a male red fox called?
Dog
A male red fox is called a dog, reynard, or tod.
Tod
A male red fox is called a dog, reynard, or tod.
Jack
Buck

Which sex of red fox will fight during the breeding season?
Male
Male red foxes will fight during the breeding season.
Female

How many claws are on the red fox’s hindpaw?
4
The red fox’s pes, hindpaw, has four claws.
3
5
6

What is the average red fox litter size?
5
Red fox litters vary in size from 1 to 13 pups with an average of 5.
1
7
13

Where are red fox ranges largest?
Poor Habitats
Individual red fox adults have home ranges that vary in size depending on the quality of the habitat. In good areas, ranges may be between 5 and 12 square kilometers, but in poorer habitats, ranges are larger, between 20 and 50 square kilometers.
Good Habitats

Red fox density is highly variable.
True
Red fox density is highly variable. In the United Kingdom, density varies between one fox per 40 square kilometers in Scotland and 1.17 per square kilometers in Wales, but can be as high as 30 foxes per square kilometers in some urban areas where food is superabundant. Social group density is one family per square kilometer in farmland, but may vary between 0.2-5 families per square kilometer in the suburbs. Fox density in mountainous rural areas of Switzerland is three foxes per square kilometer. 0.17 foxes per square kilometer has been recorded in the grassland/semi desert steppe of Mongolia. In northern boreal forests and Arctic tundra, they occur at densities of 0.1 foxes per square kilometer, and in southern Ontario, Canada at 1 fox per square kilometer. The average social group density in the Swiss mountains is 0.37 families per square kilometer.
False

Red foxes will use abandoned dens from which animals?
Rabbits
Individual red foxes and family groups have main earthen dens and often other emergency burrows in the home range. Dens of other animals, such as rabbits or marmots, are often taken over by foxes. Larger dens may be dug and used during the winter and during birth and rearing of the young.
Marmots
Individual red foxes and family groups have main earthen dens and often other emergency burrows in the home range. Dens of other animals, such as rabbits or marmots, are often taken over by foxes. Larger dens may be dug and used during the winter and during birth and rearing of the young.
Bears
Wolves

How long is the red fox’s tooth row?
More than Half Length of Skull
The red fox’s dental formula of the red fox is 3/3 1/1 4/4 2/3 and the tooth row is more than half the length of the skull.
Full Length of the Skull
Less than Half Length of the Skull
Half Length of the Skull

Red foxes have caused considerable damage to which region’s fauna?
Australia
Red foxes have caused considerable damage where they have been introduced. Their impacts on Australian fauna has been particularly well documented and control takes place by setting baits impregnated with 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate).
United States
Canada
Britain

In what season do red foxes leave their natal territory?
Fall
Young red foxes remain with their mother until at least the autumn following their birth, but some, especially females, will sometimes remain longer. The pups will disperse to their own territories as nearby as 10 kilometers and as far away as almost 400 kilometers.
Winter
Spring
Summer

When are young red foxes weaned?
2 Months
Young red foxes are nursed by their mother for 56-70 days and are fully weaned by 8-10 weeks.
6 Months
2 Weeks
1 Year

Red foxes store food in caches.
True
Red foxes eat between 0.5 and 1 kilograms of food each day and store food. They are very good at relocating these caches.
False

What is a group of foxes called?
Skulk
A group of foxes is called an earth, leash, or skulk.
Earth
A group of foxes is called an earth, leash, or skulk.
Leash
A group of foxes is called an earth, leash, or skulk.
Pack

How has worldwide trade in ranched red fox pelts changed since the 1900’s?
Decreased
Worldwide trade in ranched red fox pelts, mainly silver pelts from Finland, has reduced since the 1900’s, but was 700,000 in 1988–1989 (excluding internal consumption in the USSR). Active fur trade in Britain in the 1970s was negligible.
Increased

How long do red foxes live in the wild?
3 Years
Red foxes live on average 3 years in the wild.
9 Years
6 Years
12 Years

What percentage of red fox individuals are silver?
10%
Silver foxes make up 10% of red fox individuals, and range from strong silver to nearly black.
25%
15%
20%

What is a female red fox called?
Vixen
A male red fox is called a vixen.
Vixett
Vivian
Vulpes

How much did you know about the red fox? Share your results in the comments!

Learn More About the Red Fox

Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes are omnivorous, eating rodents, rabbits, insect, fruit, and even carrion, up to 1 kg. of food each day, sometimes storing in caches for later.

Red foxes are essentially omnivores, mostly eating rodents, eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), insects, and fruit. They will also eat carrion.

Red foxes eat between 0.5 and 1 kilograms of food each day and store food. They are very good at relocating these caches.

Red foxes have a characteristic manner of hunting mice, standing motionless while listening and watching intently for the mouse before leaping high and forcibly bringing the forelimbs straight down to pin the rodent to the ground.


ImageSue Cro, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

Learn More About the Red Fox

Red Fox

Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)

The first animal species to be featured by FaunaFocus in the year 2020, will be the red fox!

The red fox is the largest species in the Vulpes genus and can naturally occur in three color variants: red, cross, and silver. As a terrestrial, nocturnal, solitary omnivore, this species is extremely adaptable and can live in several habitats including urban areas. The red fox is highly prized for its fur.

 

GET INVOLVED

Create art inspired by the red fox and share it in the FaunaFocus Discord Server or on social media with #faunafocus. Learn about more ways to get involved with FaunaFocus!
 

EVENTS
Event Date Time (CST)
Holiday Art Trade: Deadline January 1 12:00 pm
Free-For-All: Deadline January 29 12:00 pm
Free-For-All: Livestream January 30 7:00 pm

 


Image | © Ray Hennessy, Some Rights Reserved, Unsplash

Red Fox

Red Fox

Red foxes are the largest species of the Vulpes genus, ranging from 455-900 mm. and weighing 3-14 kg.

Red foxes are the largest species of the Vulpes species.

The head and body length ranges from 455 to 900 millimeters, tail length from 300 to 555 millimeters, and weight from 3 to 14 kilograms.


Image | © Minette Layne, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC 2.0)
Sources | (Fox, 2007; MacDonald & Reynolds, 2005)

 

Learn More About the Red Fox

Curl-Crested Aracari

The curl-crested araçari is not a common species kept in captivity in the United States, but their friendly disposition makes them well-suited pets.

The curl-crested araçari is not a common species kept in captivity in the United States.

The San Diego Zoo kept some curl-crested araçaris and some of their offspring ended up at the Dallas World Aquarium. In 2004, Jerry Jennings, the president and director of Emerald Forest Bird Gardens in Fallbrook, California imported the species and sold some to the Dallas World Aquarium and the Riverbanks Zoo in Columbia, South Carolina.

Now, over 40 pairs of curl-crested araçari are scattered around the United States and Jerry Jennings has 14 breeding pairs. As such, there is sufficient breeding pairs set up for the species to be available to private aviculturists. Their friendly disposition makes them fantastic pets. As hand-fed babies, they readily imprint on their human companions and quickly bond. They are easily trained to potty in the appropriate place as well as do a number of unique bird tricks. They are curious, inquisitive and playful and a delight both in appearance and personality.

These active araçaris require large, planted flights. Aaraçaris are generally docile and can be kept with smaller birds, but not birds so small that they or their young could be considered as prey by these large birds, such as finches. Breeding pairs are best kept alone.


Image | © Brian Henderson, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-NC 2.0)
Sources | (Dallas World Aquarium, 2019; Johnson, 2011)

 

Learn More About the Curl-Crested Araçari

Curl-Crested Aracari

The curl-crested araçari’s generation length is 7 years.

The curl-crested araçari’s generation length is 7 years.


Image | © Amado Demesa, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-SA 2.0)
Sources | (BirdLife International, 2016)

 

Learn More About the Curl-Crested Araçari

FFA
Judges
Noelle M. Brooks Orange AwesomeAndo
Date December 2019 Theme Curl-Crested Araçari
Entries 7 Winner AmyGorns

As the final month of 2019 came to a close, FaunaFocus featured the curl-crested araçari and 7 different artists entered the Free-For-All. Each artist took inspiration from this odd curl-crested avian, most choosing to depict its curious and amicable personality. With a variety of concepts and media, each piece portrayed the toucan wonderfully.

Congratulations to the winner, AmyGorns, who portrayed a couple of curl-crested araçaris within a soft, pastel-colored bunch of leaves. Surrounded by glowing particle effects, these detailed birds gave a calming vibe and were skillfully drawn with a good attention to detail. It was a difficult decision for the judges, but these cute toucans won over their hearts.

AmyGorns will be selecting the FaunaFocus for the month of February 2020, which will be announced at the end of January 2020’s Free-For-All. Last month’s Free-For-All winner, Zoe has selected FaunaFocus’ first featured species for 2020, the red fox!


FaunaFocus Calendar | Free-For-All | Free-For-All Archives

Curl-Crested Aracari

The curl-crested araçari calls frequently but is not as vocal as other araçaris, making loud rising sounds that differ from other araçaris.

The curl-crested araçari calls frequently, but is not as vocal as other araçaris.

Its calls are very different from other araçaris and it makes sounds with much variability, fast to slow, deep to soft. The curl-crested araçari has very variable, deep rrek notes, soft rrr to hard, even grunting grenk notes, in series. It also makes a loud rising eeee-yak yelp that has been reported to sound rather raptor-like.

This species makes sounds with much variability, fast to slow, deep to soft, and even grunting vocalizations.


Image | © Amado Demesa, Some Rights Reserved, (CC BY-SA 2.0)
Sources | (Dallas World Aquarium, 2019; deGraauw, 2001; eBird, 2019; Schulenberg, 2019; Short & Bonan, 2019)

 

Learn More About the Curl-Crested Araçari